10 terms

Journal 40 - Native American Civilizations

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Olmec
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., these people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction.
Maya
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar.
Aztec
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Inca
was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political, and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century, and the last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.
Pizarro
A conquistador who in 1532, marched into South America, and conquered the Inca Empire. Atahualpa offered a room filled with gold and twice and silver for his release, but they strangled him
Cortez
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Aztec Religion
Worshipped the sun; gold was considered the "sweat of the sun". Practiced human sacrifice to make sure the sun would rise.
Mayan Religion
polytheistic emphasizing the maize god, human sacrifice, three tiered world (underworld, earth, sky)
Olmec Religion
Artifacts tell us they practiced polythesim artifacts such as special alters were used to make special sacrifices to the gods animals had powers the jaguar was the most powerful.
Inca Religion
polytheistic; emphasized sun god "inti"; sacrificed llamas; eventually moves to human sacrifice