Natural Hazards test 1 review ch. 1-8

What has turned what was once a disaster into a catastrophe?
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A massive forest fire that causes more damage than a small, contained one but occurs less frequently is an example ofthe magnitude-frequency concept.Possible increases in the flooding of the Yangtze River due to the basin losing about 85 percent of its forest to timber harvesting and conversion of land to agriculture is an example ofland-use changes affecting the magnitude and frequency of an event.The given figure shows (graph)the stages of recovery after a disaster.Emotional distress, donation of money or goods, and payment of taxes levied to finance recovery are examples of ________ of a disaster.Indirect effectsWhy is it important to understand the perceptions of those affected by the hazard?Success of hazard reduction programs depends on their attitudesWhat is not a way to minimize or avoid the effects of natural hazards?Rebuild in the hazard areaClimate change is likely to affect natural hazards in the future byincreasing their severity and frequency.Scientific investigations of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake led to the identification of which fault?San AndreasWhich is not impacted by the Earth's internal processes?They are all impacted by the internal processesWhat is the outer rock layer of Earth?CrustThe lava lamp illustrates the important internal Earth process ofconvection.________ is responsible for several of the most devastating natural hazards, including earthquakes and volcanoes.Plate tectonicsThe Plate Tectonic Theory was not taken seriously untilseafloor spreading was discovered.The three basic type of plate boundaries areDivergent, convergent, and transformMountain systems such as the Himalayans and Appalachians were formed through _________ plate boundaries.continent-continent convergentA ________ plate boundary is when two plates move away from each other and molten rock rises up to fill the gap.DivergentWhen neither plate is dense enough to sink into the asthenosphere, the result is a ______ plate boundary.Convergent collision______ plate boundaries are most common within oceanic crust, but a very well-known continental one is the San Andreas in California.TransformThe blue circles and red triangles indicate the location of _________ and their locations correlate strongly with __________.earthquakes & volcanoes; plate boundariesThe general speed of plate movement per year is approximately equivalent torate of some people's hair and fingernail growth.The Hawaiian Islands were created fromhot spotsIn the figure of the Age of the Ocean Floor, the distribution of age is consistent withthe theory of seafloor spreading.The fossil evidence displayed in the figure supports the idea ofa supercontinent called Pangaea.Convergent collision of two plate boundaries create some of the highest topography in the world which in turn can lead to what natural hazards?landslidesAs seen in the figure, to describe the rocks that are displaced across faults, geologists use ________ terminology.miningIn which of the following faults does the hanging-wall move down relative to the footwall?Normal dip-slip faultThe fault in the figure is caused by ________ stress.shearingWhich stage of the earthquake cycle may occur only hours or days prior to the next large earthquake but may not always occur?ForeshockWhen reporting to the public where the earthquake originated, new reports give the location of the ________.epicenterWhich is not a type of seismic wave?Ground waveWhich of the following statements is false about P waves?P waves cause the most of the damage at the epicenter.Slow damage to roads, sidewalks, building foundations, and other structures such as that shown in the figure is a result of a process calledTectonic creep.In which situation would you expect to experience the most shaking from an earthquake?Located 4 miles from epicenter, on mud, on the path of greatest rupture, M 6.5The most appropriate scale to use to compare earthquakes around the world is themoment magnitude scale.How is the intensity for an area determined on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale?People's perception of shaking and extent of damage.Although further from the epicenter than other areas, the darker orange areas in the figure experienced the most severe shaking from the Loma Prieta Earthquake becausethe bay shore consists of natural deposits of mud and bay fill.To determine the epicenter of an earthquake, scientistsfind the intersection of P and S arrival time data from three seismographs at different locations.The greatest earthquakes with magnitudes over 9 are usually associated withsubduction zones.What is a major problem with intraplate earthquakes?They are events called megathrust earthquakes.Which is not a secondary effect of earthquakes?Ground shakingWhy was the 1994 Northridge earthquake (M 6.7) in California 20 times as costly as the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska earthquake (M 9.2)?Many more human-made structures in the areaWhy is fire such a major hazard linked with earthquakes?All of these are reasons why fires are a major hazard: Firefighting equipment may be damaged, Streets may be blocked, water main may be broken, and bridges may be damaged or destroyed.What is not a natural service function of earthquakes?Destroy natural underground dams that slow or redirect flowsHuman activity can cause earthquakes through all these ways exceptbuilding over fault lines.What is not a major goal of the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program?Predict time and place of earthquakes.If predictions of earthquakes were possible, the predictions would be based on all exceptunusual animal behavior.How can we adjust to an earthquake hazard?All of these are ways to adjust to an earthquake hazard: Make sure there are adequate insurance and relief measures available, locate critical facilities in safe locations, educate the public.Tsunamis are most commonly produced byearthquakesWhy do sailors rarely notice a tsunami passing in the open ocean?Tsunamis are too small in amplitude in the open ocean, and the distance between crests is too large to notice its passing.What happens as a tsunami nears land?The height of the waves increases due to a decrease in both water depth and tsunami velocity.If Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii collapsed into the Pacific Ocean, areas of Oregon may experience aDistant tsunamiThe two waves created from a single wave (as seen in the figures) are called thelocal and distant tsunami wavesA local tsunamican arrive quickly, giving little warning time.According to the map, which of the following has the least relative hazard from tsunamis?FloridaBesides the lack of a warning system, a major reason many lives were lost in the 2004 Indonesian Tsunami wasthe lack of knowledge /education on tsunamis and their behavior.Which is not an effect of tsunamis?earthquakesHow do humans increase the risk of tsunami hazards?Moving to the coasts where the effects of tsunamis are greatest.Which is not a way a tsunami hazard can be minimized?clearing all coastal vegetationWhat is a problem with building seawalls to protect against a tsunami?They could lead to a false sense of security if not high enough.How could a community/state/country best use a runup map to prepare for a tsunami?Locate the areas most likely to be inundated to possibly move critical services outside these areas.What did scientists discover about tropical ecology after the 2004 Indonesian Tsunami?Coastal mangrove forests partly protected villages from the energy of the tsunami where the waves were smaller.What is a difficulty in the probabilistic approach to tsunami hazard risk?Tsunamis are generally rare events at one particular location.What is the difference between a tsunami watch and a tsunami warning?Watch - an earthquake that can cause a tsunami has occurred; Warning - a tsunami has been detected and is spreading across the ocean towards the area.Even if a community is "tsunami ready," what is still a potential problem?Education of the hazard and what to do in a watch or warningWhen a tsunami watch or warning is issued, you can take your own personal actions. Which is not an action you should take?Assume the area is safe because there have not been any dangerous waves elsewhere.How can tsunami waves be so deceiving?All of these are ways that tsunami waves are deceiving: The trough (lowest point) may arrive first, they look small out at sea because of the distance to the horizon, the time between waves may be as long as an hour, they normally do not break like regular ocean waves.What was not a problem associated with the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami?The small village of Fudai had built a much higher wall than people thought was necessary in the 1960s.Approximately two-thirds of all the active volcanoes on Earth are locatedwithin the Ring of Fire.Magma begins to form if rocks are close to their melting temperature and the pressure from above is decreased in the process calleddecompression melting.Which is not a sinking plate in the "Ring of Fire"?AustrailianIn order of increasing silica content, the three major types of magma areBasaltic, andesitic, rhyoliticThe figure shown is an example of a ______ eruption.cinder coneCrater Lake (shown in the figure) is an example of a _______.continental calderaTsunamis, fires, landslides, and debris flows are all examples of ________ of volcanic activity.secondary effectsThe Roman towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum were destroyed from the _______ of Mount Vesuvius.pyroclastic flowThe figures on the previous slide show the before and after of what volcano?Mount St. HelensThe shaded areas on the map show the _______ of the three labeled volcanoes.ash fallout areasThe "year without a summer" in New England was a result of the Tambora volcano creating what?global cloud of sulfuric acid dropletsWhat is a natural service function that volcanoes provide?All are natural service functions of volcanoes: Provide excellent growth medium for plants, Create power for nearby urban areas, Host minerals in volcanic rocks, Provide recreational activitiesWhat type of information is NOT used in forecasting volcanic eruptions?Monitoring the atmospheric pressure_____ and _____ are significant factors in a person's knowledge of the hazard and possible adjustments to it.Age; length of residence near hazardLava and other volcanic materials are extruded on to the surface through avolcanic vent.The largest type of volcanoes - common in the Hawaiian Islands, Iceland, and in the East African Rift - are _______ volcanoes.shieldAll of the following are direct hazards of ash fall exceptricher farming soilIf the _______ of the Yellowstone and Long Valley eruptions were experienced today, it would devastate the U.S. economy and food production capabilities, as well as have negative impacts on global climate change.ash fallWhat method was used on the Icelandic Island of Heimaey to deflect the lava flow from the main town?Hydraulic chillingWhat is the role of a drainage basin?Collect rain and other precipitation to drain into rivers or streams.The figure is most likely a cross section of a rivernear its headwaters.Along the same river with no additions or deletions of flow, which situation has the greatest discharge?The discharge will be the sameThe continual migration of meandering rivers is a result ofcontinual erosion of cutbanks and deposition on point bars.Which does not play a role in flooding?The amount of humidity in the atmosphereSaying that a flood is a 100-year flood means thatthere is a 1 percent probability that this size of flood will occur in any given year.What distinguishes flash floods from downstream floods?Flash floods occur in the upper part of the basin.With the addition of levees (see figure), how does the natural floodplain change?The area of wetlands is decreased.The figure shows the change in flood damage and flood-control expenditures over the years. What has caused these trends?There has been an increase in development on floodplains.Which is not a factor that affects the damage caused by floods?The time between floodsWhich is not an effect of flooding?EarthquakeWhat makes flooding a natural hazard?People live or build structures on the floodplainWhich is not a natural service function of a flood?Wash away fertilizer used in farmingHow did the building of the Glen Canyon Dam affect the Colorado River?All of these are affects of the dam: Made rapids more dangerous because boulders are not naturally moved downstream. Reduced the mean annual flood. Disappearance of sandbars. Growth of vegetation not previously present.What is a problem with urbanization when it comes to flooding?The impervious surfaces can increase the frequency of low and intermediate floods.Which is not a way that humans can increase the frequency and magnitude of flooding?Create more green spaces in a cityWhich is not a way we have tried to minimize flood hazards?National adoption of strong floodplain regulation policiesWhat is a major problem with flood-control measures?They tend to encourage more people to move into the floodplainWhich is not an argument by opponents of natural stream modification?Cutting trees increases the aesthetics by permitting better views of the streamWhat is a difference seen between a natural stream and a channelized stream?A natural stream has a more diverse aquatic life since there are varying water velocities.The figure shows a zoning map before and after the implementation of flood regulations. What is most likely not a reason for the regulations?Return the much sought after land to the government for their own developmentDownslope movements are classified according to all these variables exceptshape of slope.What is the most common driving force of landslides?WeightHow is the stability of a slope assessed?Determining the relationship between driving forces and resisting forcesWhat are the two basic patterns of movement for slides?Rotational and translationalWhich situation would be the least likely to contribute to a potential soil slip?Planting of native grasses on a previously bare hillside.Which variables interact to create unstable conditions for snow avalanches?Steepness of slope, weather, stability of snowpackMany areas at risk for high landslide incidence shown in red on the figure coincide withmountainous/high elevation areas.What is not an effect of landslides?Triggering an earthquake.What is a natural service function of landslides?Create new habitat for fish in landslide-dammed lakes.How can humans increase the number and frequency of landslides?Logging on weak, unstable slopes.Which of these is not a factor in why Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, has more slope-stability problems than any other city of its size?New vegetation has been planted on the bare slopes, adding weight to the slopes.How can areas where landslides are likely to occur be indentified?All of these are ways to identify potential landslides: Areas of cleared vegetation down a hillslope Tongue-shaped masses of sediment at the base of the slope Crescent-shaped cracks present on a hillside Exposed bedrock with layering parallel to the slopeHow are landslide hazard and land-use maps like the one shown for Santa Clara County, California, used to minimize landslide hazards?Provide a general land use recommendation.How does the landslide hazard minimizing strategy shown in the figure help prevent landslides?Divert water away from the slope.How can grading of slopes be beneficial in preventing landslides?Cutting a series of benches or steps into a high, steep slope reduces the overall slope and creates collection sites for small slides.Why do we still put in efforts to prevent landslides even though it is so expensive?There is a high benefit-to-cost ratio and not doing so could be detrimental.Why do people chose to live in landslide areas?They do not think it will happen on their hillside since they are so infrequent.Which is not a way an individual can minimize their landslide hazard?Do not spend money on expensive preventative measuresHow does the study of soils help evaluate natural hazards?All of these are ways that scientists have used soils in evaluation of natural hazards.How can the color of the soil help in possible hazard risk assessment?Red soil usually signifies it is poorly drained, which can lead to higher slope instability.If the pore spaces in the soil are completely filled with water, the soil isSaturatedSubsidence is commonly associated withdissolution of soluble rocks beneath the surfaceThe figure shown, with rolling hills and alternating areas of subsidence and undisturbed land, is an example ofKarst TopographyWhat is the difference between solutional sinkholes and collapse sinkholes?Collapse sinkholes develop when the surface or near - surface material falls into an underground cavern.Which of the following locations have climates that are favorable to cave formation?Louisville, KYThermokarst has formed in the Arctic due toclimatic warming in the past 5 decades.How has human activity lead to an amplification of natural delta subsidence?Building of levees and dams that prevent sediment to reach the deltaWhich has not been a cause of subsidence in the Mississippi Delta?Cutting channels though leveesWhich is not an indication that there are expansive soils in an area?Upward movement of land surfacesWhich is not an effect of subsidence and soil volume change?Increased groundwater - table levels to use during droughtsHow are climate change, subsidence, and soil volume change related?Global warming is the primary cause of permafrost melting in the Arctic, which in turn releases greenhouse gases that could speed up climate change.Which is a natural service function of subsidence and soil volume change?Creating unique ecosystemsWhat happens when humans withdrawal subsurface fluids, such as oil, natural gas, and water?Pumping out the liquid reduces support of the earth material.The figure shows Jefferson Island and the salt mine and nearby oil drilling rig. What was the end result of this particular oil drilling location?The drilling penetrated the mine causing mine flooding, lake draining, and other damageWhat is a realistic way to minimize hazards from subsidence and soil volume change?Construct buildings on a compacted fill layerThe best adjustment to subsidence and soil volume change is to avoid building in the areas prone to these hazards. Why is this not possible?In the United States and Canada alone, there is a great portion of the land that is affected by at least one of the hazards.

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