Biology Unit 2

State Cell Theory
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Terms in this set (12)
Nucleus- Stores cell DNA, maintains integrity, and facilitates its transcription and replication.
Smooth ER - Metabolic processes: synthesizes lipids, phospholipids as in plasma membranes and steroids.
Mitochondria- generates ATP, creates energy
Chloroplast- plant cell organelles that convert light energy into stable chemical energy via photosynthetic processes.
Central Vacuole- stores salt, minerals, nutrients, proteins, pigments, helps in plant growth
Cytoskeleton- helps cells maintain their shape and internal organization, provides mechanical support that enables cells to carry out a central function
Endomembrane system- ensures biochemical processes work correctly
Ribosomes- Area of protein synthesis
Rough ER- Modifies & transports proteins
Golgi Apparatus- "packages" proteins & transports proteins
Vesicle- "containers", sends things to their destinations
Lysosome- digestive enzymes, digests worn organelles
-Passive Transport
Osmosis: transportation of water across the cell membrane
Simple Diffusion: form of diffusion that does not need membrane proteins
Facilitated diffusion: passive movement of molecules along the concentration gradient
-Energy-expending transport
Active transport: movement across molecules/ions to a higher concentration
Endocytosis: substances are brought into the cell
Exocytosis: transports molecules out of the cell
Define: -Active transport -Phagocytosis -Pinocytosis -Receptor-mediated endocytosis -Exocytosisactive transport- The movement of molecules or ions across the cell membrane from a region of lower concentration to higher concentration —- against the gradient. Phagocytosis- The ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans. Pinocytosis- The ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane. Receptor-mediated endocytosis- Cells absorb metabolites, hormones, proteins, by the inward budding of the plasma membrane. Exocytosis- A process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.What are the 5 different membrane proteins & their functions?Enzymes: promote chemical functions, build or break molecules Receptor proteins: respond to specific messenger molecules Recognition proteins: serve as ID tags Connection proteins: anchors cell membrane in various ways Transport proteins: regulate movement, channel proteins, carrier proteins