Model 6 (13,16,17)

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Represents mechanisms that facilitate the excretion of waste products from the body. Waste is removed from the body by many systems including the respiratory system, skin, and gastrointestinal and urinary systems.
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Terms in this set (167)
-50 and older
-Hispanic americans
-African americans
-Asian/Pacific islanders
-Japan, China, Southern/Eastern Europe, South/central america
-Helicobacter pylori infection
-Eating smoked foods, salted fish and meat, pickled vegetables
-Previous stomach surgery
-Blood type A
-Family history
Bladder cancer risk factors:-Smoking -Workplace exposures -Not drinking enough fluids -White -Men -Chronic bladder irritation and inflammation -Genetics and gamily historyColorectal cancer risk can be reduced by:-Consume diet high in fruits, veggies, whole grains. -Limit intake of high fat foods -Moderate to vigorous activity for 30 minutes 5 days or more a week. -healthy weight -no smoking -Limit alcohol intakeStart abdomen examination w/ ?InspectionAuscultation _____ palpation on the abdomen so the presence or absence of bowel sounds or pain is not altered.BEFOREDuring a breast examination, take notice of the ___, _____, and ___Size Symmetry WidthDuring palpation of the abdomen, press ______ cm.4-6When acidic gastric secretions (with a pH 2-4) flow into the lower esophagus (with a pH 6-8), the mucosa is damaged. When this reflux of gastric secretion becomes chronic,Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Patients complain of heartburn occurring more than twice weekly, regurgitation, and dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), which may interrupt sleep. -Chest pain described as squeezing or radiating to the back, neck, jaw, or arms can mimic chest pain. However, when chest pain is relieved with antacids, angina is unlikely. -Respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and dyspnea may be reported. -Symptoms are aggravated by lying down, bending, and stooping and relieved by sitting up, antacids, and eating.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) clinical findingsA protrusion of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm into the mediastinal cavity is termedHiatal herniaClinical manifestations are the same as those of GERD: -heartburn -regurgitation -dysphagia.Hiatal hernia clinical findingsAn ulcer in the lower end of the esophagus, in the stomach, or in the duodenum is termedPeptic ulcer disease-gastric: burning pain high in the epigastric area 1 to 2 hours after eating, often relieved with antacids. -duodenal: burning pain in the mid-epigastric area and back 2 to 4 hours after eating and in the middle of the night; pain relief may occur after taking antacids or eating. -The most common exam finding is epigastric pain during palpation.Peptic ulcer disease clinical findingThis chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is also called regional enteritis or regional ileitisCrohn disease-Unpredictable periods of remission with relapses. -Cannot be cured, it can be treated. -Patients complain of severe abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and weight loss.Crohn disease clinical findingsThis chronic IBD starts in the rectum and progresses through the large intestineUlcerative colitis-Unpredictable periods of remission with relapses. -Patients complain of severe, constant abdominal pain, fever during acute attacks, and rectal bleeding. -The patient experiences profuse watery diarrhea of blood, mucus, and pus.Ulcerative colitis clinical findingsInflammation of diverticula is termed _____. These are herniations through the muscular wall in the colonDiverticulitis-Patients complain of pain in the LLQ -nausea; vomiting; and altered bowel habits, usually constipation. -Examination findings include fever, decreased bowel sounds, with LLQ pain on palpation, palpable mass, and tympany to percussion.Diverticulitis clinical findingsMalignant tumors arising in the mucosa of the rectum or colon are collectively referred to asColorectal cancer-Diagnosed through screening among asymptomatic patients. -Blood in the stool, a change in the bowel habits (constipation), changes in consistency of stool, abdominal pain or bloating, fatigue, and weight loss.Colorectal cancer clinical findingsViral infection of the liverViral Hepatitis-Anorexia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and fever. -Jaundice, tan-colored stools, and dark urine may also be reported. -An enlarged liver may be also be detected on palpation.Viral Hepatitis clinical findingsCharacterized by diffuse destruction of liver cells that are replaced by fibrotic scar tissue and regenerative nodules end-stage liver disease seen in patients with diseases such as chronic hepatitis or alcoholic liver disease.Cirrhosis-Indications in the early stages are enlarged liver and fatigue. -In the later stages, jaundice with dark urine and tan-colored stool and ascites develop as well as spider angiomas. -Portal hypertension contributes to spleen enlargement, which results in thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukopenia.Cirrhosis clinical findingsInflammation of the gallbladder is termed cholecystitis and is usually associated with gallstones, a condition termedCholecystitis w/ cholelithiasis-The primary symptom is pain in the RUQ in the abdomen that may radiate the right shoulder or scapula. -Nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and diaphoresis. -Indigestion and mild transient jaundice. -Abdominal rigidity, RUQ tenderness, palpable gallbladder, and positive Murphy sign may be found during examination.Cholecystitis w/ cholelithiasis clinical findingsAcute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas is calledpancreatitis-Sudden onset of severe pain, described as steady, boring, dull, or sharp, that radiates to the back. -Pain becomes worse with intake of food. Patients prefer knee-chest position. -Nausea and vomiting. Vital signs indicate fever, tachycardia, and hypotension. -Findings on examination include ascites, jaundice, decreased-to-absent bowel sounds, and abdominal tenderness with guardingpancreatitis clinical findingsThese infections may involve the urethra (urethritis), urinary bladder (cystitis), or renal pelvis (pyelonephritis)Urinary tract infection-Dysuria, frequency (more than every 2 hours), urgency, and suprapubic pain. -The urine may contain blood or sediment, creating a cloudy appearance. -Nonlocalized abdominal discomfort and may have cognitive impairment. -Symptoms of acute pyelonephritis vary from fatigue to sudden onset of fever, chills, vomiting, and flank painUrinary tract infection clinical findingsForm in a kidney and may enlarge in a ureter or the bladder. The process of stone formation is termed nephrolithiasis.Urinary tract calculi (stones)-Tiny stones may not cause any symptoms since they are not obstructing urine flow. -sudden onset of severe pain felt in the flank area, back, or lower abdomen. -Nausea and vomiting may occur due to the severe pain. -lower abdominal pain, burning during urination, frequency, or hematuria.Urinary tract calculi (stones) clinical findingsMedications known to contribute to breast pain:• Oral contraceptives • Postmenopausal estrogen and progesterone hormone therapy • Spironolactone • Methyldopa • Digoxin • Haloperidol • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsbreast cancer risk factors:-Female -increases w/ age (65-84) -White -Inherited mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes -first-degree family relative -Nulliparity, Long menstrual history, First full-term pregnancy after age 30 -increased breast density -Hormone replacement therapy for more than 5 years after menopause -Physical inactivity -Obsesity -Alcohol intake_______ have the highest rate of new breast cancer, closely followed by _______. _________ have the lowest rate of new breast cancer.White women Black women American Indian/Alaska Native_______ have the highest rates of mammography screening. _______ have the lowest rate of mammography cancer screening of any ethnic group, closely followed by __________Black women Asian women American Indian and Hispanic.Median age at diagnosis for black women is ____ compared to age ____ for white women60 64___________ have the lowest 5-year survival rate for breast cancer, compared to women of any other racial or ethnic group. Access to care and delays in follow-up may partly explain the survival gap between ________.Black women black and white womenSerous (yellow) nipple dischargeUsually normalSerosanguineous (straw colored) nipple dischargeCarcinoma Ductal ectasiaSanguineous (bloody) nipple dischargeCarcinoma Intraductal papilloma Ductal ectasia Vascular engorgementClear (watery) nipple dischargePharmacologic causes CarcinomaMilky nipple dischargePituitary adenoma Pharmacologic causes GalactorrheaPurulent nipple dischargeInfectious process Ductal ectasiaMulticolored (green, gray, brown) nipple dischargeFibrocystic changes Carcinoma Infectious process Ductal ectasiaPlace the finger pads of your middle three fingers against the outer edge of the breast. Press gently in small circles around the breast until you reach the nipple. Try not to lift your fingers off the breast as you move from one point to another.Circular methodPlace the finger pads of your middle three fingers on the areola and palpate from the center of the breast outward. Return your fingers to the areola and again palpate from the center outward, covering another section of the breast (in a spoke-like fashion). Repeat this until the entire breast has been covered.wedge methodPlace the finger pads of your middle three fingers against the top outer edge of the breast. Palpate downward and then upward, working your way across the entire breast.vertical strip methodBreast Mass characteristics:-Location -Size -Shape -Consistency -Tenderness -Borders -Mobility -RetractionsResponsible for a small, whitish discharge referred to as "witch's milk" seen in a small percentage of newborns during the first few weeks of lifeMaternal hormonesWhen a patient has had a mastectomy, inspect ____ and ___Mastectomy site and axillaA term that represents a number of breast-related symptoms and problems, including breast pain or tenderness, swelling, lumps, discharge, and inflammation.Benign breast diseaseBenign breast disease accounts for ____ of clinical breast problems90%refers to a variety of conditions associated with multiple benign masses within the breast caused by ductal enlargement and the formation of fluid-filled cysts.Fibrocystic changes to the breast-cysts manifest as one or more palpable masses that are round, well-delineated, mobile, and tender -range from slightly tender to very painful, with the cysts often fluctuating in size and tenderness with the menstrual cycle. -Symptoms tend to subside after menopause.Fibrocystic changes to the breast clinical findingsThe most common type of benign breast disease is a _________ - a mass consisting of glandular and fibrous tissuefibroadenoma-unilaterally as a small, solitary, firm, rubbery, nontender lump. -mobile and well-delineated. This tumor does not change premenstruallyfibroadenoma clinical findingsThis benign breast disease is characterized by inflammation and dilation involving one or multiple subareolar ducts. It affects perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.Ductal ectasia-The initial symptom is a sticky nipple discharge that is commonly dark green or black. -burning or itching of the nipple and edema in the areolar area. -The discharge may become purulent or sanguineous. A complication that can occur is a breast abscess.Ductal ectasia clinical findingsThis small, benign tumor growth in the major ducts usually forms within 1 to 2 cm of the areolar edgeIntraductal papilloma-spontaneous, bloody discharge from the nipple -occasionally, a painful mass is palpatedIntraductal papilloma clinical findingsThe most common type of breast cancer is an invasive malignancy arising from the ducts or lobules.Invasive breast cancer-solitary, unilateral, nontender lump, thickening, or mass -breast asymmetry, discoloration (erythema or ecchymosis), unilateral vein prominence, peau d'orange, ulceration, dimpling, puckering, or retraction of the skin. -The lesion is sometimes fixed to underlying tissue. Its borders are irregular and poorly delineated. -The nipple may be inverted or diverted to one side. -A serosanguineous or clear nipple discharge may be present. There may be crusting around the nipple or erosion of the nipple or areola. -Lymph nodes may be palpable in the axilla.Invasive breast cancer clinical findingsThere are two types of breast cancers categorized as noninvasive:ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS).-an abnormal mammogram. -Occasionally, a lump with well-defined margins or nipple discharge.Noninvasive breast cancer clinical findingsan inflammatory condition of the breast usually caused by a bacterial infection. Frequently occurs in lactating womenMastitis-The infection generally occurs in one area of the breast, -red, edematous, tender, warm to the touch, and hard. -Axillary lymph nodes are often enlarged and tender. -fever and chills and often experiences general malaiseMastitis clinical findingsinappropriate lactationGalactorrhea-milky-appearing nipple discharge -There are no other specific symptoms because any additional signs or symptoms are likely based on the underlying cause (e.g., headache or change in vision if caused by a pituitary tumor).Galactorrhea clinical findingsnoninflammatory enlargement of one or both male breasts and represents the most common breast problem in men.Gynecomastia-unilateral or bilateral -manifests as enlargement of the male breastGynecomastia clinical findingsCervical cancer risk factors:-Persistent infection w/ human pap virus -Early age sex -multiple sex partners -suppressed immune system -Smoking -Multiple childbirths -Oral contraceptives -Obesity -Family historyTesticular cancer risk factors:-Age (20-34) -Cryptorchidism -family history -history testicular cancer -White menOvarian cancer clinical findings:-Family history -Personal history of breast cancer -BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations -Pelvic inflammatory disease and Lynch syndrom -Nulliparity -Obesity -Estrogen use for postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy -Increases w/ ageProstate cancer clinical findings:-Men over age 65 -African american men -Family history -High dietary fat intake, high dairy, and calcium intake. -Lynch syndrome (a form of colorectal cancer), BRCA1, BRCA2.Sexually transmitted disease risk factors:-Unprotected sex -Multiple sex partners -Younger people -Substance use -Trading sex for money/drugs -Sex w/ IV user -Sex w/ a person who has STD -Not vaccinated against HPV or hep BHemorrhoidal or lower rectal bleeding colorBright redUpper intestinal tract bleeding or excessive iron or bismuth ingestion colorTarry blackObstruction of the biliary tract (obstructive jaundice) colorLight tan or grayMalabsorption syndrome colorPale yellowa very tight foreskin that cannot be retracted over the glansPhimosisinability to return the foreskin over the glansParaphimosiscaused by an alteration of the normal vaginal flora with other bacteria; a number of bacteria can cause BV, including Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus, and Mycoplasma hominis.Bacterial vaginosis-malodorous (often described as fishy) vaginal discharge and vulvar itching and irritation.Bacterial vaginosis clinical findingsfungal (yeast) infection usually caused by Candida albicans.Candida vaginitis-Some women have asymptomatic infections. -ulvar pruritus associated with a thick, cheesy, white vaginal discharge. -Vaginal soreness and external dysuria (caused by the splashing of urine on inflamed tissue) may occur. -Erythema and edema to the labia and vulvar skin may be visible.Candida vaginitis clinical findingsrepresents a large number of infections that are transmitted through sexual activitySTDThe most common STD in the United States is ______, occurring most frequently among sexually active adolescents and young adults under the age of 25. It is transmitted from genital-genital, oral-genital, and anal-genital contact.Chlamydia-asymptomatic in up to 75% of women because it often does not cause enough inflammation to produce symptoms. -urinary (e.g., dysuria, frequency, or urgency) and vaginal (e.g., spotting or bleeding after sexual intercourse or purulent cervical discharge). -purulent or mucopurulent cervical discharge, cervical motion tenderness, or cervical bleeding on the introduction of a cotton swab (friability).Chlamydia women clinical finding-occurs in the urethra, but it can also affect the rectum. -urethral infection include dysuria, discharge, and urethral itch. -If untreated, urethral infection can spread to the epididymis causing epididymitis.Chlamydia men clinical findingCaused by the aerobic, gram-negative diplococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae, this is currently the second most frequently reported STD in the United States.Gonorrhea-causes a yellow or green vaginal discharge, dysuria, pelvic or abdominal pain, and abnormal menses. -Vaginal itching and burning may be severe.Gonorrhea women clinical findings-urethritis -mucopurulent or purulent discharge and dysuria. -If untreated, gonorrhea can lead to epididymitis.Gonorrhea men clinical findingsa systemic disease, is caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum, which is transmitted congenitally or by sexual contact.Syphilis-single, firm, painless open sore or chancre with indurated borders at the site of entry on the genitals or mouth -In men, the most common location is on the shaft of the penis . This ulcer typically appears about 21 days after infection and usually heals within 3 to 6 weeks. -Secondary syphilis occurs 6 to 12 weeks after the initial lesion. -rash characterized by red macules and papules over the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. -Round or oval flat, grayish lesions known as condyloma latum develop in the anogenital area. -Latent syphilis follows the secondary stage and can last from 2 to 20 years; during this period, the patients are asymptomatic. -Tertiary infection has destructive effects on the neurologic, cardiovascular, ophthalmic, and musculoskeletal systems.Syphilis adult clinical findings-retinal inflammation, glaucoma, destructive bone and skin lesions, and central nervous system involvement.Syphilis neonates clinical findingsa highly contagious STD caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, which inhabits the vagina and lower urinary tract, particularly the Skene ducts.Trichomoniasis-malodorous greenish-yellow vaginal discharge often accompanied by vulvar irritation. -The walls of the vagina and the cervix may have petechial "strawberry patches" -Men are usually asymptomatic, but when symptoms occur, they include irritation inside the penis, burning after urination or ejaculation, or penile discharge.Trichomoniasis clinical findingsa sexually transmitted viral infection caused by the Herpes simplex virus (HSV).Herpes genitalisHerpes genitalis women clinical findings-common among women than in men, and women usually have a more severe clinical course. -burning or pain with urination, pain in the genital area, and fever. -single or multiple vesicles that can be found on the genital area or the inner thigh. -After vesicles rupture, small, painful ulcers are observedHerpes genitalis men clinical findingshighly contagious and because these infections are often asymptomatic or unrecognized.Human papillomavirus-wartlike growths that are termed condylomata acuminata -The warts typically appear as soft, papillary, pink-to-brown, elongated lesions that may occur singularly or in clusters on the internal genitalia, the external genitalia, and the anal-rectal region. -When in clusters, they take on a cauliflower-like appearance.Human papillomavirus clinical findingsparasitic infection usually transmitted by sexual contact.PediculosisPediculosis-severe pruritus in the perineal area. -lice or nits (eggs) in the pubic hair. -excoriation and an area of erythema -on close inspection, the lice and nits can be seen. Nits are tiny, yellow-white eggs that are attached to the hair shaft. -The adult lice are larger, are tan to grayish-white in color, and have a crablike appearance when viewed under a magnifying glass. -Lice feces appear as tiny dark spots (resembling pepper) and may be seen adjacent to the hair shafts.Pediculosis clinical findingspolymicrobial infection of the upper reproductive tract affecting any or all of the following structures: the endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterine wall, or broad ligaments.Pelvic inflammatory disease-acute or chronic disease -very tender adnexal areas (ovaries and fallopian tubes). -pain is so severe that the patient is unable to tolerate bimanual pelvic examination. -fever, chills, dyspareunia, and abnormal vaginal discharge. -tender, irregular, and fixed adnexal tissues.Pelvic inflammatory disease clinical findingsAn inflammation of the epididymis and vas deferens is referred to asEpididymitis-dull, unilateral scrotal pain that develops over a period of hours to days. -The scrotum becomes erythematous and edematous -fever and dysuria. A hydrocele may be seen with transillumination.Epididymitis clinical findingsa group or cluster of recurrent symptoms experienced by women associated with their menstrual cycle.Premenstrual syndrome-emotional, cognitive, and physical symptoms begins during the last half of the menstrual cycle and diminishes after menstruation begins. -mood swings, depression or sadness, irritability, tension, anxiety, restlessness, and anger. -difficulty concentrating, confusion, forgetfulness, and being accident prone. -excessive energy or fatigue, nausea or changes in appetite, insomnia, back pain, headaches, general muscular pain, breast tenderness, and fluid retention.Premenstrual syndrome clinical findingsThis is a benign, progressive disease process characterized by the presence and growth of uterine tissue outside the uterusEndometriosis-pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and heavy or prolonged menstrual flow. -small, firm, nodular-like masses palpable along the uterosacral ligaments. -The uterus may be tender.Endometriosis clinical findingsare very common benign uterine tumors that commonly affect women over age 35, affecting as many as 60% of women over their lifetimeUterine leiomyomas-asymptomatic. -pelvic pressure and heaviness, urinary frequency, dysmenorrhea, pelvic or back pain, and abdominal enlargement. -can be detected by palpation during a pelvic examination. The tumors typically feel firm, smooth, and irregular in shapeUterine leiomyomas clinical findingsBenign cystic growths within the ovary (ovarian cysts) may be solitary or multiple occurring unilaterally or bilaterally.Ovarian cysts-asymptomatic -tenderness and a dull sensation or feeling of heaviness in the pelvis. -If a cyst ruptures, a sudden onset of abdominal pain occurs. -nontender, fluctuant, mobile, and smooth mass on the ovaryOvarian cysts clinical findingsCancer of the cervix is usually caused by HPV infectionCervical cancer-abnormal vaginal bleeding, such as bleeding between normal menstrual periods, bleeding after intercourse, or menstrual bleeding that is heavier or lasts longer than normal. -lesion may be visible; the lesion usually has a hard, granular surface that bleeds easily and has irregular bordersCervical cancer clinical findingsThe most common gynecologic malignancy isendometrial cancer-abnormal uterine bleeding or spotting, although a watery vaginal discharge is frequently noted several weeks to months before the bleedingendometrial cancer clinical findingshas the highest mortality rate of the gynecologic cancers because it is typically undetected; thus it is known as the "whispering disease."Ovarian cancer-no symptoms until advanced stages of the disease. -abdominal distention or fullness. -By the time ovarian malignancies are palpable, the disease is usually advancedOvarian cancerThis condition is caused by the twisting of the testicle and spermatic cord and cutting off the blood supply.Testicular torsion-sudden onset of severe testicular pain and scrotal swelling. The testicle often becomes slightly discolored. -it is not associated with physical activity or trauma.Testicular torsion clinical findingsAn accumulation of fluid within the scrotum createsHydrocele-Gradual scrotal enlargement The scrotum appears enlarged; edema appears on the anterior surface of the testis but may also extend up into the spermatic cord area. -Transillumination of the scrotum is indicated when a hydrocele is suspected. -A light red glow indicates the presence of fluid; failure to glow suggests a mass.Hydrocele clinical findingscystic mass that occurs within the epididymis or spermatic cord. It is filled with sperm and seminal fluid.Spermatocele-painless but is characterized by significant edema in the involved testicle. -A separate mass is palpated within the testis, adjacent to the epididymis or spermatic cordSpermatocele clinical findingsThis condition is caused by an abnormal dilation and tortuosity of the veins along the spermatic cordVaricocele-pulling sensation or a dull ache or have scrotal pain. The veins above the testis tend to feel thickened -a palpable mass is usually detected in the scrotum. -Ninety percent of varicoceles occur on the left side.Varicocele clinical findingsThe most common malignancy in men ages 20 to 34Testicular cancer-painless testicular mass that is usually discovered by the patient or his sexual partner. -a hard and irregular mass is felt within the testis. -If the mass is large enough, deformity of the scrotum may be observable.Testicular cancer clinical findingsis an enlargement of the prostate gland that usually affects older menBenign prostatic hyperplasia-sensation of not completely emptying the bladder after urinating, frequent urination, difficulty starting the urinary stream and/or a weak urinary stream, and urgency. -enlarged prostate that is smooth and projects into the rectum.Benign prostatic hyperplasia clinical findingsAn inflammation of the prostate gland is termedProstatitis-fever, chills, pain in the back and rectal or perineal area, and urinary obstructive symptoms (difficulty urinating, bladder fullness) -enlarged prostate that is usually tender with induration. -recurrent UTI, pain, dysuria, and scrotal or penile pain -enlarged, tender, and boggy prostate. -urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia, dysuria, and pain or discomfort -soft and boggy prostate. -AsymptomaticProstatitis clinical findings-asymptomatic until the cancer begins causing urinary obstruction, resulting in difficulty urinating. On palpation, the prostate feels hard and irregular. -The median sulcus is obliterated as the prostate tumor growsProstate cancer clinical findingsdilated veins of the hemorrhoidal plexus resulting from increased portal venous pressure.Hemorrhoidsa tear of the anal mucosa causing intense pain. It occurs in all age groups but is seen most often in young healthy adultsAnorectal fissure-crack within the anus, usually located midline in the posterior wall of the rectum -severe rectal pain, itching, and rectal bleeding.Anorectal fissure clinical findingsA pus-filled cavity in the anal or rectal area is referred to as anAnorectal abscess and fistula-rectal pain -fever. -edema, erythema, and induration. -severe that the patient cannot tolerate palpation of the area. -red, raised granulation tissue; the drainage is serosanguineous or purulentAnorectal abscess and fistula clinical findingsprotruding growth from the rectal mucosa.Rectal polyp-rectal bleeding -Occasionally a polyp may protrude from the anus and appear as small, soft nodules.Rectal polyp clinical findingsRectal and anal cancer occur when a malignant tumor grows within the rectal mucosa, anal canal, or anusCarcinoma of the rectum and anus-asymptomatic -rectal bleeding. -irregular mass on the rectal wall with nodular, raised edges.Carcinoma of the rectum and anus clinical findingsa protrusion of part of the peritoneal-lined sac through the abdominal wallHerniaa full-thickness protrusion of the rectal wall through the anus (turning inside out).Rectal prolapse-rectal bleeding, a mass, and change in bowel habits -intestine or a hemorrhoid is hanging out of the anus. -pink mucosal bulge that is described as a "doughnut" or "rosette"Rectal prolapse clinical findingsassociated with a retroverted uterus that descends into the vagina. In first-degree prolapse, the cervix remains within the vaginaUterine prolapse-heaviness, fullness, or the sensation of "falling out" in the perineal area. The cervix is visualized low within the vagina, at the vaginal opening, or protruding from the vaginal opening.Uterine prolapse clinical findingsa protrusion of the urinary bladder against the anterior wall of the vaginaCystocele-sensation of fullness or pressure, stress incontinence, occasional urgency, and a feeling of incomplete emptying after voiding. -A soft bulging mass of the anterior vaginal wall is usually seen and felt as the woman bears downCystocele clinical findingshernia-type protrusion of the rectum against the posterior wall of the vagina.Rectocele-heavy feeling within the vagina. -constipation, a feeling of incomplete emptying of the rectum after a bowel movement, and a feeling of something "falling out" in the vagina. -Bulging of the posterior vagina is observed as the woman bears downRectocele clinical findings