U.S. History Exam 1 Review

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Terms in this set (30)
- 1870-1871, congress adopted three of these, outlawing terrorist societies and allowing the president to use the army against them
- continued the expansion of national authority during reconstruction
- defined crimes that aimed to deprive citizens of their civil and political rights as federal offenses rather than violations of state law
- 1872, first time since before civil war, peace reigned in most of the former confederacy
Muller v Orgeon-1908, Louis D. Brandeis filed a brief citing scientific and sociological studies to demonstrate that because women had less strength and endurance than men, long hours of labor were dangerous for women - set max working hours for womenTime Zones- By the 1890s, trains transported products to eastern markets, and manufactured goods to the West, railroads reorganized this itself - 1883 nation divided into four ____ ___ used todayYellow Journalism- type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers - blamed Spain and insisted on retribution - Joseph PulitzerMuckrakers- the use of journalistic skills to expose the underside of American life - writing that exposed corruption and abuses in politics, business, meatpacking, child labor, and more, primarily in the first decade of the 20th century; included popular books and magazine articles that spurred public interest in reformSocial Darwinism- Application of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to society; used the concept of the "survival of the fittest" to justify class distinctions and to explain poverty - to improve their lot, they believed workers should practice personal economy, keep out of debt, and educate their children in the principles of the marketplace, not look to government for aidDemocracy expansion (Progressive era)- hoped to reinvigorate democracy by restoring political power to the citizenry and civic harmony to divided society - political reforms to create unified people - 17th amendment - enfranchising women - restrictions to blacks: literacy tests and residency and registration requirements for voting17th amendmentprovided that U.S. senators be chosen by popular vote rather than by state legislaturesSocial Gospel- insisted that freedom and spiritual self-development required an equalization of wealth and power and that unbridled competition mocked the Christian ideal of brotherhood - originated as an effort to reform Protestant churches by expanding their appeal to poor urban neighborhoods and making them more attentive to the era's social ills - established missions and relief programs in urban areas that attempted to alleviate poverty, combat child labor, and encourage the construction of better working-class housing - demanded health and safety lawsSocialist Party- Political party demanding public ownership of major economic enterprises in the United States as well as reforms like recognition of labor unions and women's suffrage; reached peak of influence in 1912 when presidential candidate Eugene V. Debs received over 900,000 votes - brought together surviving late 19th century radical, with a portion of the labor movementFordism-Henry Ford developed the techniques of production and marketing that brought it within the reach of ordinary Americans - 1905 established ford motor company - concentrated on standardizing output and lowering prices - moving assembly line, 1913 - economic system based on mass production and mass consumptionPopulist Platform- 1892, adopted at the party's Omaha convention, remains a classic document of American reform - put forth a long list of proposals to restore democracy and economic opportunity - called for public ownership of the railroads to guarantee farmers inexpensive access to markets for their cropsElection of 1896- party nominated for president Ohio governor William McKinley - sometimes called the first modern presidential campaign because of the amount of money spent by the Republicans and the efficiency of their national organization - results revealed a nation as divided along regional lines as in 1860 - Bryan carried the South and West, McKinley carried Northeast and Midwest - McKinley's victory shattered the political stalemate that had persisted since 1876, created most enduring political majorities in American history - South democratic, North republicanFarmer's Alliance- the largest citizens' movement of the 19th century, farmers sought to remedy their condition - attempted to improve rural conditions by the cooperative financing and marketing of crops - alliance "exchanges" would loan money to farmers and sell their produce - proposed that the federal government establish warehouses where farmers could store crops until they were sold - using crops as collateral, government would issue loans to farmers at low interest rates, led the alliance into politicsChinese Exclusion Act- 1882 law that halted Chinese immigration to the US - first time that race had been used to exclude from the country an entire group of people - Chinese in the US were required to register with the government and carry ID papers or face deportation - IDs first came into widespread use as a means of enforcing Chinese exclusionNew Immigrants- 3.5 million newcomers entered the US during the decade, seeking jobs in the industrial centers of the North and Midwest - widely described by native-born Americans as members of distinct races whose lower level of civilization explained everything from their willingness to work for substandard wages to their supposed inborn tendency toward criminal behavior - wave of newcomers from southern and eastern Europe, including many Jews, who became a majority among immigrants to America after 1890 - helped to trigger a resurgence of racial nationalism in the US and elsewhere in the worldAnnexation of the Philippineswhen the U.S took over the Philippines as a result of victory in the Spanish American War, provided U.S with a superb naval base in the Pacific and a way to station for trade with ChinaJane Addams and Hull House- women reformers spoke for the democratic side of Progressivism - women challenged the barriers that excluded them from formal political participation and they placed on the political agenda new understandings of female freedom - Jane Addams born in 1860, founded the Hull House in Chicago in 1889 - was a settlement house devoted to improving lives of the immigrant poor - modeled on Toynbee Hall - settlement house workers moved into poor neighborhoods - they built kindergartens and playgrounds for children, established employment bureaus and health clinics, and showed female victims of domestic abuse how to gain legal protection - by 1910, more than 400 settlement houses had be established in cities throughout the country - Addams, progressives era of "new woman" - by 1900, more than 80,000 college-educated women in the USSettlement HouseLate-nineteenth-century movement to offer a broad array of social services in urban immigrant neighborhoods; Chicago's Hull House was one of hundreds of settlement houses that operated by the early twentieth centurySamuel Gompersleader of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)Black Voting Restrictions- between 1890 and 1906, every southern state enacted laws or constitutional provisions meant to eliminate the black vote - poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clause - as late as 1940, 3% of adult black southerners were registered to vote