Pathophysiology Study Guide Questions Ch. 14 and Ch. 16

Insulating lipid material that surrounds axons
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write the branch of the autonomic nervous system whose stimulation would cause each effect: sympathetic or parasympathetic -increased peristalsis in intestinesparasympatheticLOOK AT BOTH PICTURES ON PAGE 68!LOOK AT BOTH PICTURES ON PAGE 68! and answer 22, 23, 26, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system is _______, and the craniosacral division is _________.sympathetic; parasympatheticThe term "adrenergic" refers to __________ nerves.sympatheticStart with the skin and place the structures in their anatomic order moving inward to the cerebral cortex. 1) skin 2) pia mater 3) subarachnoid space 4) dura mater 5) arachnoid mater 6) skull (bone) 7) subdural space 8) cerebral cortex (neurons)skin, skull (bone), dura mater, subdural space, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space, pia mater, cerebral cortex (neurons)LOOK AT PIC ON PAGE 70!answer questions 42 and 47What is the difference between efferent nerves and afferent nerves?Efferent nerves carry impulses AWAY from the CNS, but afferent nerves carry impulses TOWARD the CNS.What is the difference between the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system?The somatic nervous system consists of sensory pathways and motor pathways that govern voluntary motor control of skeletal muscle, but the autonomic nervous system consists of sensory and motor pathways that regulate primarily involuntary function of body organ systems.What is the difference between an EPSP and an IPSP?An excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a small depolarization that occurs in a postsynaptic neuron and promotes creation of an action potential, but an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a small hyperpolarization that occurs in a postsynaptic neuron and inhibits creation of an action potential.The general term for nervous system cells that are not neurons is?neuroglia (glia)In the central nervous system, ___________ form the myelin sheaths, but in the peripheral nervous system ________ ______ form the myelin sheaths.oligodendrocytes (oligodendroglia); schwann cellsThe ______ plexuses produce cerebrospinal fluid, which returns to the blood at the __________ ______.choroid; arachnoid villiNeurotransmitter released at target tissues by postganglionic parasympathetic neurons?Acetylcholine (ACh)Neurotransmitter released at target tissues by most postganglionic sympathetic neurons?Norepi. (NE)"All these names are so confusing!" exclaims a new nurse. "Rubrospinal tract, spinothalamic tract! How can I remember where they go so I can understand what happens if they are damaged?"The names of spinal tracts provide the necessary information. The first part of the name tells where the tract begins. The second part of the name tells where the tract ends; that is where the axons synapse. So, the rubrospinal tract begins in the red nucleus and goes down the spinal cord; it is a motor tract. The spinothalamic tract begins in the spinal cord and goes to the thalamus in the brain; it is a sensory tract.Mrs. Ahmad's son has a recent head injury and is in the hospital. "Why did they tell me to be sure his neck is straight and his head does not lean to the side?" she asks.If his head leans to the side, that could compress a neck vein and increase the pressure in his brain.Changes in the pupils are useful to evaluate (cortical, brainstem) function because the areas that control arousal are located (nearby, contralaterally).brainstem; nearbyInflammation from brain injury causes __________ cerebral edema.vasogenicAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig Disease) involves degeneration of _____________ motor neurons, causing _________ muscle weakness.both upper and lower; progressiveExtrapyramidal motor syndromes involve ___________ ____________.abnormal movementWhich disfunction: hyperkinesia or hypokinesia? -loss of associated movementshypo.Which disfunction: hyperkinesia or hypokinesia? -choreahyper.Which disfunction: hyperkinesia or hypokinesia? -bradykinesiahypo.LOOK AT PICS ON PAGE 82ANSWER QUESTIONS PG 82What is the difference between arousal and awareness? 33Obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid causes ___________.hydrocephalusWhen intracranial pressure equals mean systolic blood pressure, cerebral blood flow _________.stopsSeverely increased intracranial pressure can cause brain tissue to _______ into another cranial compartment.herniateSupratentorial lesions are located above the tentorium ________.cerebelliMr. Bowen's admission diagnoses are hypoglycemic seizure and type 2 diabetes. -How should a nurse respond to Mrs. Bowen? 47 -Did Mr. Bowen have a partial or generalized seizure? What is the pathophysiologic difference between these two types? 48 -What is the "tonic" part of the seizure? -What is the "clonic" part of the seizure? -Why did Mr. Bowen's confusion and disorientation not resolve immediately when he received intravenous glucose? -After he recovered that afternoon, Mr. Bowen said his leg and arm muscles were aching. What most likely caused his muscle aching?What two classic pathologic changes that contribute to neuronal death are visible in the brain tissue of a person who had Alzheimer Disease? Describe each briefly. 53Mrs. Czerny's initial symptom was forgetfulness, which is the most common initial manifestation of Alzheimer's disease. What portion of her brain was most affected by the pathologic changes at that time? 55LOOK AT CLINICAL DESCRIBTION PAGE 86. -What clinical manifestations of Parkinson disease put Mr. Armstrong at risk for falling? 57 -Is Parkinson disease a pyramidal or extrapyramidal disorder? What basic pathophysiology causes the motor manifestations of Parkison disease? -A nurse says, "He says he is in pain, but his face does not show it. Maybe he does not need this pain medication." What is the appropriate response?