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Terms in this set (63)
People who share common language, race, descent, and or history.
Sovereign entity endowed with legal "personality"
Statehood under the Montevideo Convention
capacity to enter into relations with other states
Achieving Statehood under the constitutive theory
Must be recognized by existing states
Follows Congress of Vienna recognition of 39 stateIn practice meant recognition by great powers
Anarchy in International Relations
No international or global governing
States obligated to act in own best interest
Lasting Significance of Peace of Westphalia
Helped resolve religious conflicts
Beginning of modern system of states
Established sovereignty of the state
European state system eventually expands to
the use of military power to
enrich imperial governments.
No higher official political, legal or governing authority than the state
Sovereignty--Importance for International Relations
This is important because the highest governing authority makes the decisions revolving around international relations
Hundred Years Peace: 1815-1914 Congress of Vienna, 1815 Established Concert of Europe Rise of the national state
Principal antagonists in Cold War
USA vs soviet scum 1945-1990
Two Principal Cold War Alliances
NATO vs Warsaw Pact alliances
UN involvement in Persian Gulf War
The United Nations Security Council and Arab League condemn the invasion • UN sets withdrawal deadline which Iraq ignores • UN authorizes use of "all necessary means" • US leads a coalition that defeats Iraq
Involvement Iraq 2003 war
The US led a "coalition of the willing" into Iraq despite failing to get authorization from the United Nations Security Council.
Dominant Strats in Game Theory
An actor makes the same choice regardless of what the opponent does
Dominant Strats in Prisoners Dillema Theory
The dominant strategy is to defect regardless of his partners actions
Equilibrium in Game Theory
An outcome that arises from each side playing the best response strategies
occurs when two or more actors adopt policies that make at least one actor better off than it would otherwise be
describes an interaction in which actors must choose outcomes that make one better off at the expense of another
Two Key Qualities of Public Goods
Nonexcludable, Nonrival Ex-National Defense, Clean Air
Two Key Qualities of Public Goods Examples
National defense, clean air
Collective Action Problem
Each actor aims to benefit from the good without bearing the costs for it
Linkage work to facilitate cooperation
Linkage- ties cooperation on one policy dimension to cooperation on other dimensions
Iteration work to facilitate cooperation
By reinforcing the belief that something will happen if there is no cooperation
is the ability to get other people to do what you want them to do
Principal insight of the bargaining theory of war
Bargaining involves redistribution
The set of deals that both parties in a bargaining interaction prefer to the reversion outcome. When the reversion outcome is war, the bargaining range is the set of deals that both sides prefer to war.
An effort to change the status quo through threat of force
used to preserve the status quo by threatening the other side with unacceptable costs if it seeks to alter the current relationship.
bargaining situation are most likely subject to incomplete information
A state confronted by demands may mistakenly yield too little or not at all • A state may demand too much under the mistaken belief that the other side will accede
Brinksmanship and Usefulness in Bargaining Situation
State could signal their resolve in a crisis by approaching the "brink" of war through provocative actions. • Must decide whether to step onto the "slippery slope" and increase the risk of starting a war The willingness to take such a chance separates resolute from irresolute adversaries.
Tying of hands and Usefulness in Bargaining Situation
States can send credible signs of their willingness to fight by making threats in a way that would make backing down difficult Basically Flexing
Commitment Problems and Why do they affect the likelihood of war?
-States may have difficulty in making credible promises not to revise the terms of a deal/treaty later.
_____ are common in the absence of any enforcement mechanism.
3 General Strats to Make War Less Likley
Raising the costs of war
Providing outside enforcement of
Dividing apparently indivisible goods
Unitary Actor Assumption
The treatment of states as coherent actors with a set of interests that belong to the state You are assuming the state does what it best for itself
Peoples tendency to become more supportive of their own government during a crisis
A temptation to spark an international crisis in order to rally public support at home
An alliance between military leaders and the industries that benefit from international conflict such as arms manufacturers.
Alliance of Military
leaders and arms manufacturers who presumably have vested interest in aggressive foreign policy
Favor use of military means
Dove: Opposed use of military means
A well-established observation that there are few, if any, clear cases of war between mature democratic states
Core Elements of Democracy
Contestation- Is the ability of different individuals and groups to compete for political office
Participation - Is the ability of a large portion of the country to be involved in the selection process through voting
What is the downfall of democratic leaders going to war?
Democratic leaders face higher cost from war than do nondemocratic leaders
NonDemocratic Loose office? what happens?
Nondemocratic leaders also find that life after losing office is not pleasant because of threatened force
Conflic Resolution in UN Charter
Pacific Settlement- IGO remains neutral, promotes compromise
Collective Security- IGO takes sides, Promotes victory
form when states have common interests, facilitate cooperation,
Collective Security Organizations
form around public interests in promoting peace, help faciltate collective action
refers to a situation in which military capabilities of two states or groups of states are roughly equal
when states team up with more powerful side in order to share spoils of conquest
Collective Security Organizations Example + Successful Incident
Manchurian incident 1931
The use or threatened use of "premeditated, politically motivated violence against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually to influence an audience"
Fighting between parties of highly unequal military capabilities.
induces policy change by imposing costs on the target
Terrorists may attack simply to provoke a response from the target government
The purpose is to make a target state believe that the moderate leadership is not sincere about making peace. Creates a problem of credibility
In some cases a terrorist group may attack a target simply to increase support for the group within the home population.
The desire to create an independent state on territory carved from an existing state
The desire to detach a region from one country and attach it to another, usually because of shared ethnic or religious ties.
Civil War Caused By Grievance or Greed
Civil war is a conflict of interest representing Grievance over territory, policy, regime
or Greed for economic resources
Proxy War + Example
External actors express animosity through opposing sides
First Cold War Proxy War was greek civil war
Rationality of Terrorists
There is evidence that terrorists networks choose targets, respond to risk and adjust to counter terrorists efforts in rational ways
Where you stand depends on where you sit
Decisions about war and peace are not
only shaped by state leaders, but also by
the interests of bureaucratic organizations.
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