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Bio Chapter 4

STUDY
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weather
Day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere.
climate
Average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
microclimate
climate within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
greenhouse effect
Trapping and build-up of heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the Earth's surface. Some of the heat flowing back toward space from the Earth's surface is absorbed by water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and several other gases in the atmosphere and then reradiated back toward the Earth's surface. If the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases rise, the average temperature of the lower atmosphere will gradually increase.
latitude
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
niche
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species; The range of physical and biological conditions in which a species obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce; Organism's job
habitat
the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs; Organism's address
Tolerance
The ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental circumstances.
Resource
Any necessity of life
Examples: water, sunlight, water, and soil nutrients;
For animals space, shelter, types of food and places to feed
Competition
The struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
Competitive exclusion principle
ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time
Predation
interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
Herbivore-plant relationship
A relationship between herbivores and the plants they eat.
Keystone species
a species that is critical to the functioning of the ecosystem in which it lives because it affects the survival and abundance of many other species in its community
symbiosis
Any relationship in which two species live closely together
Mutualism
a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
Parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it
Commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
ecological succession
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established
primary succession
an ecological succession that begins in a an area where no biotic community previously existed
secondary succession
succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
climax communities
The endpoint of the successional sequence;
Community has reached steady state. It is stable
under its set of environmental conditions