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Terms in this set (38)
Actus reus (pronounced ak-tus ray-uhs)
A guilty (prohibited) act. The commission of a prohibited act is one of the two essential elements required for criminal liability, the other element being the intent to commit a crime.
The malicious burning of another's dwelling. Some statutes have expanded this to include any real property regardless of ownership and the destruction of property by other means—for example, by explosion.
Beyond a reasonable doubt
The standard used to determine the guilt or innocence of a person criminally charged. To be guilty of a crime, one must be proved guilty "beyond and to the exclusion of every reasonable doubt/' A reasonable doubt is one that would cause a prudent person to hesitate before acting in matters important to him or her
Botnet Short for robot network
a group of computers that run an application that is controlled and manipulated only by the software source. Although sometimes a legitimate network, usually this term is reserved a group of computers that have been infected by malicious robot software. In a botnet, each connected computer becomes a zombie, or drone
The unlawful entry into a building with the intent to commit a felony. (Some state statutes expand this to include the intent to commit any crime.)
Any violation of criminal law that involves knowledge of computer technology for its perpetration, investigation, or prosecution
A wrong against society proclaimed in a statute and punishable by society through fines and/or imprisonment—or, in some cases, death
A crime that occurs online in the virtual community of the Internet, as opposed to the physical world
Fraud that involves the online theft of credit card information, banking details, and other Information for criminal use
A situation occurring when son is tried I twice for the same criminal offense; prohibited by the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution
Unlawful pressure brought to bear on a person, causing the person to perform an act that he or she would not otherwise perform
The fraudulent appropriation of money or other property by a person to whom the money or property has been entrusted
In criminal law, a defense in which the at claims defendant claims that he or she was induced by a public official—usually an undercover agent or police officer to commit a crime that he or she would otherwise not have committed
In criminal procedure, a rule under which any evidence that is obtained in violation of the accused's constitutional rights guaranteed by the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments, as well as any evidence derived from illegally obtained evidence, will not be admissible in court.
Felony A crime
such as arson, murder, rape, or robbery—that carries the most severe sanctions, usually ranging from one year in a state or federal prison to the forfeiture of one's life.
The fraudulent making or altering of any writing in a way that changes the legal rights and liabilities of another.
A group of citizens called to decide, after hearing the state's evidence, whether a reasonable basis (probable cause) exists for believing that a crime has been committed and whether a trial ought to be held.
A person who uses one computer to break into another. Professional computer programmers refer to such persons as "crackers."
The act of stealing another's identifying information—such as a name, date of birth, or Social Security number—and using that information to access the victim's financial resources.
Indictment (pronounced in-dyte-ment)
A charge by a grand jury that a reasonable basis (probable cause) exists for believing that a crime has been committed and that a trial should be held.
A formal accusation or complaint (without an indictment) issued in certain types of actions (usually criminal actions involving lesser crimes) by a law officer, such as a magistrate.
The wrongful taking and carrying away of another person's personal property with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of the property. Some states classify larceny as either grand or petit, depending, on the property's value.
Malicious software programs designed to disrupt or harm a computer, network, smartphone, or other device.
Mens rea (pronounced mehns ray-uh)
Criminal intent. A wrongful mental state, which is as necessary as a wrongful act, to establish criminal liability. What constitutes a guilty mental state varies according to the wrongful action. Thus, for murder, the mens rea is the intent to take a life. For theft, the wens rea must involve both the knowledge that the property belongs to another and the intent to deprive the owner of it.
A lesser crime than a felony, punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to one year in other than a state or federal penitentiary.
Falsely reporting income that has been obtained through criminal activity as income* obtained through a legitimate business enterprise-in effect, ''laundering" the "dirty money "
In criminal law, a defense against liability; under Section 3.02 of the Model Penal Code, this defense is justifiable if "the harm or evil sought to be avoided" by a given action "is greater than that sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense charged-"
In criminal law, the least serious kind of criminal offense, such as a traffic or building-code violation.
fraud in which criminals pretend to be legitimate companies by using e-mails or malicious Web sites that trick individuals and companies into providing useful information, such as bank account numbers, Social Security numbers, and credit card numbers.
The process by which a criminal defendant and the prosecutor in a criminal case work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case, subject to court approval; usually involves the defendant's pleading guilty to a lesser offense in return for a lighter sentence
Reasonable grounds to believe the existence of facts warranting certain actions, such as the search or arrest of a person.
The act of forcefully and unlawfully taking personal property of any value from another; force or intimidation is usually necessary for an act of theft to be considered a robbery.
An order granted by a public authority such as a judge, that authorizes law enforcement personnel to search particular premises or property
The legally recognized privilege to Protect one's self or property against injury by another. The privilege of self-defense protects only acts that are reasonably necessary to protect one's self or property
A type of malware that is transmitted between computers and attempts to do deliberate damage to systems and data
White-collar crime Nonviolent crime
committed by individuals or corporations to obtain a personal or business advantage.
A type of malware that is designed to copy itself from one computer to another without human interaction. A worm can copy itself automatically and can replicate in great volume and with great speed. Worms, for example, can send out copies of themselves to every contact in your e-mail address book.
is guaranteed by a clause the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The clause reads "nor shall [any person],be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself."
What does "nullum crimen nulla poena sine lege" mean?
Which Amendment to the U.S. Constitution declares that people must be secure in their homes and in their persons against unreasonable searches and seizures?
True or False: A 10-point preference eligible veteran may file an application at any time for any position in which a non-temporary appointment has been made in the preceding three years?
During the ink analysis laboratory exercise, which best describes the mobile phase used in Thin Layer Chromatography?
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