46 terms

Ch. 3 - Stress Management

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What is the number one obstacle for college students' academic achievement?
Stress

29% of adults aged 18-29 report feeling extreme stress levels of 8, 9, or 10 on a 10-point scale
Stress
The collective psychobiological condition that occurs in reaction to a disruptive, unexpected, or stimulating stimulus
Stressor
Any physical or psychological condition, event, or factor that causes stress
Stress Response
The way that the body reacts physiologically to the stressor
What are the 2 types of stress?
1. Eustress
2. Distress
Eustress
Is a term coined by endocrinologist Hans Selye and is defined as stress that is healthy, or gives one a feeling of fulfillment or other positive feelings

It is a healthful, stimulating kind and level of stress

It is usually related to desirable events in a person's life
Examples of Eustress
Graduating from college, getting married, receiving a promotion, changing one job for a better prospect, buying a new home
Distress
Negative stress brought about by constant readjustments or alterations in a routine

Distress creates feelings of discomfort and unfamiliarity
The Body's Stress Response
The specific psychobiological changes that occur as the body attempts to cope with the stressor and return to homeostasis, or balance
Nervous System
Consists of the brain, spinal cord and nerves

Part of the nervous system is under voluntary or conscious control (somatic nervous system) and part is not under conscious control (autonomic nervous system)
Characteristics of Autonomic Nervous System
1. Under involuntary control (unconscious supervision)

2. Controls digestion, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and hundreds of other functions
Physical Responses to Stress (7)
The two major control systems in your body that are responsible for your physical responses to stress are the NERVOUS and ENDOCRINE systems:

- Increased heart rate and blood pressure

- Rush of adrenaline

- Trembling, sweating, rapid breathing

- Adrenal glands produce cortisol and adrenaline

- Pupils dilate

- Circulatory system produces blood-clotting factor.

- Digestive system slows and liver releases glucose into bloodstream
What are the two branches of the Autonomic Nervous System?
1.Parasympathetic Division
2. Sympathetic Division
Characteristics of Parasympathetic Division
In control when there are no emergency needs (when relaxed)

Aids in:
- Digesting food
- Storing energy
- Promoting growth
Characteristics of Sympathetic Division
Activated when the body needs to react to an emergency (severe pain, anger and fear)

Known as "flight-or-fight" response

Sympathetic nerves act on nearly every organ, sweat gland, blood vessel and muscle

Commands the body to stop storing energy to mobilize all energy resources to respond to the crisis
Endocrine System
System of glands, tissues, and cells

Helps control body functions by releasing hormones and other chemical messengers
4 Coordinated Functioning of the Autonomic and Endocrine Systems During an Emergency
(1) Sympathetic Nervous System prompts the Hypothalamus (control center in the brain) to release a chemical messenger to the Pituitary Gland

(2) The Pituitary Gland releases ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) into the bloodstream

(3) When ACTH reaches the adrenal glands (located above the kidneys), it stimulates those glands to release cortisol and other key hormones into the bloodstream

(4) Simultaneously, sympathetic nerves instruct the adrenal glands to release epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine
Physiological (Biological) Responses to the Release of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Hearing and vision become more acute

Bronchii dilate to allow more air into the lungs

Heart rate increases

Blood pressure increases

Liver releases extra sugar (energy boost for muscles and brain)

Endorphines are released to relieve pain

Blood cell production increases
Acute Stress
Is the reaction to an immediate threat, more popularly known as the fight or flight response

This type of stress can be due to any situation that is experienced, even subconsciously or falsely, and perceived as a danger
Common Acute Stressors
- Noise
- Crowding
- Isolation
- Hunger
- Danger
- Infection
- Imagining a threat or remembering a dangerous event
Chronic Stress
Is something which is not short lived

A person with chronic stress experiences it every day on an on-going basis

The stress gets aggravated when an individual tries to suppress it
Common Chronic Stressors
- Ongoing highly pressured work
- Long-term relationship problems
- Loneliness
- Persistent financial worries
- Ongoing health problems
Fight-or-Flight Response
- Kicks in any time you face a stressor
- Evolved as a survival mechanism to help humans escape physical danger
- Temporarily boosts strength and reflexes to physically enable avoidance or confrontation of danger
- Can be unhelpful or even harmful
- Most modern-day stressors are not the extreme physical threats the fight-or-flight response is designed for
- Fight-or-flight experienced too often can take a powerful toll on body and health
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
"Hans Selye's Theory of Stress and Disease"

"GAS" describes what is believed to be a universal and predictable response pattern to all stressors

The sequence of physical responses associated with GAS is the same for eustress and distress and occurs in 3 stages

It is the body's attempt to stay in physiological balance (homeostasis)
What are the 3 stages of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
1. Alarm
2. Resistance
3. Exhaustion
Alarm
When first confronted by a stressor, your body activates the fight-or-flight response, boosts levels of stress hormones, and increases heart rate
Resistance
As the stressor continues, your body continues to turn to its internal resources to deal with the stressor and try to restore balance
Exhaustion
After long exposure to the stressor, your body's ability to adapt eventually wears out, and you cannot continue to function normally
Allostasis
The short-term adaptive processes that help the body deal with the challenges of stress
Allostatic Overload
The feeling of being mentally and physically stressed out
Physical Symptoms of Chronic Stress
- Fatigue
- Lying awake at night
- Headache
- Gastrointestinal disturbance
- Muscle tension
- Change in sex drive
- Teeth grinding
- Dizziness
- Chest tightness
- Change in menstrual cycle (for women)
Psychological Symptoms of Chronic Stress
- Feeling angry or irritable
- Lacking interest or motivation in daily activities
- Feeling anxious or nervous
- Feeling sad or depressed
Emotional Warning Signs for Stress Overload
- Anxiety
- Sleep disruption
- Anger and agitation
- Trouble concentrating
- Unproductive worry
- Frequent mood swings
- Depression
Physical Warning Signs of Stress Overload
- Stooped posture
- Sweaty palms
- Chronic fatigue
- Weight loss or weight gain
- Migraine or tension headaches
- Neck aches
- Digestive problems
- Asthma attacks
- Physical symptoms a health-care provider can't attribute to another condition
Behavioral Warning Signs of Stress Overload
- Overreaction to problems or difficult situations
- Increased use of alcohol, tobacco, or drugs
- Unusually impulsive behavior
- Withdrawal from relationships or contact with others
- Feeling "burned out" on school or work
- Frequent bouts of crying
- Feelings of anxiety or panic
8 Common Causes of Stress
- Financial stressors
- Daily hassles
- Academic pressures
- Job-related issues
- Social stressors (friends, relationships)
- Major life events (marriage, injury, divorce, job loss)
- Environmental stressors (pollution, noise)
- Internal stressors (negative self talk, worry, anxiety)
What is the best strategy for reducing stressors and managing stress?
Live a healthier lifestyle
What is the side effect of sleep deprivation?
Sleep deprivation can add stress to your life
- Stress also affects sleep quality

Sleep deprivation can affect physical, emotional, social, and mental health
How many Americans sleep less than the recommended 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night?
1/3
What is "Sleep Debt" caused by?
It is caused by sleeping less than needed

It cannot be made up, but can be avoided by getting enough quality sleep each night
Strategies for Reducing Stressors and Managing Your Stress
1. Reframe your thinking
2. Seek help from health professionals
3. Use time management strategies
Time Management Strategies
1. Set priorities

2. Schedule tasks for peak efficiency

3. Set realistic goals and write them down

4. Allow 10-25% buffer time for unanticipated problems or situations

5. Use short amounts of time wisely instead of waiting for or relying on large blocks or time

6. Identify quick transitional tasks

7. Consolidate tasks when possible

8. Do your least favorite tasks first

9. Use mental practice to visualize the successful completion of tasks and goals

10. Delegate responsibility when necessary

11. Say "no" when necessary

12. Allow free unstructured time for enjoyment

13. Stop thinking or talking about what you are going to do, just DO IT!!!!!
Ways to Help Prioritize
- Categorize your responsibilities and commitments
- Choose a "planner" that will allow you to visualize your time commitments
- Choose a system that is easy to scan (by using 'color code' and 'symbols')
- Block out time periods designated as buffer zones
- Assign a space daily or weekly to write important reminders, memos, or notations
- Have a section assigned for important or frequently used information
Problem Solving Strategies
1. Define the problem in 1 to 2 sentences

2. Identify the causes of the problem

3. Consider possible solutions

4. Weigh the positive and negative consequences for each solution

5. Make a decision by choosing a solution

6. Make a list of what you will need to carry out your solution

7. Begin to act on your list as soon as possible

8. Evaluate the outcome and revise your approach, if necessary
Relaxation Techniques
- Listening to music
- Meditation or prayer
- Progressive muscle relaxation
- Visualization and guided imagery
- Massage
- Biofeedback
Examples of Relaxation Techniques
1. Deep Diaphragmatic Breathing
2. Visualization or Imagery
3. Meditation
4. Progressive Relaxation
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