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Terms in this set (361)
ThrombocytosisWhat is the term used to describe increase volume of platelet in the blood?HeparinWhat substance is added to the blood to maintain its fluidity and prevent clotting?HemoglobinWhat specific molecule or protein in the blood has the capacity to carry blood gases?ErythrocytosisWhat is the term used to describe increase volume of red blood cells in the blood?LeukocytosisWhat is the term used to describe increase volume of white blood cells in the blood?HematopoiesisWhat is the term for the production of blood cells in the bone marrow?FibrinogenWhat specific protein is present in plasma but absent in serum?schistocytesWhat is the term for broken or fragmented red blood cell?ErythropeniaWhat is the term used to describe low volume of red blood cells in the blood?EosinophilsWhat specific white blood cell increases most in cases of allergic reaction?EosinophilsWhat specific white blood cell increases in cases of parasitic infection?ErythrocytosisWhat is the term used to describe increase volume of red blood cells in the blood?spleenInside the body, what is the graveyard site of blood cells?neutrophilsWhat type of white blood cell increases in number in cases of bacterial infection?poikilocytosisWhat is the term to describe variation in shape of red blood cells?Increase WBC, PLT, LDHPhysiologic factors affecting test result: exerciseLipid diet increases, ALP, Hgb (Spectro method)Physiologic factors affecting test result: DietIncrease Hgb, WBC, CortisolPhysiologic factors affecting test result: SmokingShift in posture causes varied resultsPhysiologic factors affecting test result: PosturePM-increase, eosinophil, dec, ACTH & CortisolPhysiologic factors affecting test result: Diurnal rhythmIncrease WBC, fibrinogen, factors 1,5,8, 10Physiologic factors affecting test result: StressHeart attack and polythemiaToo much hemoglobin can cause:Cytopeniadeficiency of cellsPancytopeniadeficiency of all types of blood cellsPhlebitisinflammation of a veinPoikilocytosispresence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells - cells with different shapesSplenoctomypartial removal of the spleenThrombosisblood clotNephropathydisease of the nephron of the kidneyMicrocyte/Microcytosisred cells abnormally smallMacrocytes/Macrocytosisred cells abnormally largeHypochromicPertaining to deficiency in color; decrease in hemoglobin in red blood cells.6.7-7.8 pHpH of bloodAbioticwithout living component4.6L of bloodaverage volume of bloodDeoxygenated bloodHigh affinity to oxygenRBC- no hemoglobin, no function - for blood gas management - transportation of blood gasWBC- protection against pathogenic - defense mechanism - fight infection; line of defense inside the bodyNeutrophilfight bacteriaEosinophilincrease when there is parasite infections such as ascaris and allergyBasophilincrease when there is hypersensitivity reaction= has stimulantsMonocyteincrease when there is chronic infectionMonocyteit determines diseases that you do't know - hidden disease - high monocyte= pulmonary disease/cancerLymphocyteincrease when there is viral infection such as covid 19, monkey pox and chicken poxGranulocytessacs with cytoplasmAgranulocytewithout granules; do not consist of a granular cytoplasmMedullary hematopoiesisblood cell production in bone marrowHematopoiesisblood cell formationExtramedullary hematopoiesishematopoiesis outside bone marrow (e.g., spleen, liver, lymphnodes)Gases Nutrients Vitamins HormonesBlood transports:Respiratory function of bloodprovides oxygen and collect CO2 from the tissues It collect RBCExcretory function of the bloodexcretes: sweat, urine, saliva, toxic materials in tears,Urea (Blood Urea Nitrogen)toxic materialsNutritional function of bloodproteins carbohydrates lipidsBody temperature function of the bloodregulate by the blood gland-regulate temperatureBuffering action function of bloodcorrects the pH t functional value eliminate acidIncrease acidIncrease in carbon dioxide?Lactic acid formsHemoglobinHemoglobin + H20 formscarbonic acidcarbonic acid formscarbonic anhydrase enzyescarbonic anhydrase enzymes formsbicarbonates1.055Average specific gravity of blood1.00average specific gravity of waterSlightly alkalineBlood is..?3.44-4.5 times thicker than waterThickness and viscuos of blood75-85 mL of blood/kg body weightAmount of blood in body weightNormocytenormal RBCHaimameans bloodPlasmaliquid portion of uncoagulated bloodSerumfluid portion of coagulated bloodAnticoagulantprevents clottingFibrinogenCoagulation factor; promotes endothelial repair; correlates with ESR.Thrombinconverts fibrinogen to fibrin55%percentage of liquid component45%percentage of solid componentNeutrophil Eosinophil Basophiltypes of granulocytesMonocyte Lymphocytetypes of agranulocytes-poiesisit means formation-cytosisit means increase-peniait means decrease, deficiencyPolycythemiahigh RBC countAnemialow RBC countLeukemiahigh WBC countThrombocythemiaHigh platelet count20g per 100 mL of bloodtotal solids of bloodReplenishment mechanismmaintains the count of blood and its normal levela-, an-lackcyt-unequaldys-abnormalerythro-redferr-ironhemo-bloodhypo-beneath; under; lesshyper-aboveiso-equalleuko-whitemacro-large, longmega-large, giantmeta-aftermicro-smallmyelo-bone marrow, spinal cordpan-allphleb-veinphago-eatpoikilo-varied, irregular shapepoly-manyschis-splitscler-hardsplen-spleenthrombo-clot, thrombusxanth-yellow-cytecell-emiablood-itisinflammation-lysisdestruction-omaabnormal, increase/decrease-peniadeficiency-phil(ic)attracted to-plasia/plasticcell production/repair-poiesiscell production/formation-poietinstimulate productioneryptosisprogrammed cell death of RBCapoptosisprogrammed cell deathhematologystudy of bloodbloodred liquid and the only circulating in the heartoxygenated bloodtravels in our arteriesdeoxygenated bloodtravels in our veinscirculating bloodtravels or circulates inside the body (arteries and veins)peripheral bloodblood that does circulates but can be found in the peripheral area of our body (capillary)Plasmahas the presence of fibrinogenFerrous ironiron that the hemoglobin hasFerrous ironhas the affinity to oxygen so it binds oxygen from the lungsYoung RBCage of RBC that has nucleusMatured RBCage of RBC that has no nucleus/uncleatedRBCit is the smallest true blood cellPlateletit is not a true cell. it has no nucleus but has is considered a blood cellPlateletit is the smallest blood cellLiver, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, lymph nodes, yolk sacorgans that produce bloodhemablood"to" meaningrefers to a cell, cyto-poiesisformationPolyphyletic theorysuggests that each blood cell lineage is derived from its own unique stem cellMonophyletic theorysuggests that all blood cells are derived from a single progenitor stem cellPluripotential stem cellWhat do you call the single progenitor stem cell of monophyletic theoryless than 1% of the populationstem cells account for..?Mesoblastic/megaloblastic hepatic medullary/myeloid stage3 phases of hematopoiesisyolk sacchief site of mesoblastic/magaloblastictime when mesoblastic/megaloblastic happens2nd-9th week of fetal lifePrimitive erythroblastwhat blood cell forms in mesoblastic/megaloblasticLiverchief site of hepaticSpleen, thymus, lymph nodessupport organ of hematopoiesis in hepatic stagechief site of medullary/myeloid stagered bone marrow5th month of gestationtime when medullary/myeloid stage happensPosterior Iliac Crest (POSICpreferred site of bone marrow aspiration in adultsTibiapreferred site of infants <18 months of ageyolk sacat 2 weeks of embryonic life, what is the organ involvesprimitive red cellswhat is the blood cell formed in yolk sac?liver and spleenat second month of hematopoiesis, what is the organ involved?Granulocyte and Megakaryocytewhat is the blood cell formed in liver and spleen?Bone marrowwhat is the organ involved at 4th month of hematopoiesisLymphocytewhat is the blood cell formed in bone marrow of the 4th monthBone marrowwhat is the organ involves at the 5th month of hematopoieisisMonocytewhat is the blood cell formed in bone marrow of the 5th monthRibs Sternum, skulls and shoulder blades Vertebrae Pelvis, proximal ends of long bonesmain site of hematopoiesis in adultCellularityratio of marrow cells to fatNormocellularmarrow has 30%-70% of hematopoietic cellsHypercellular/Hyperplastic>70% hematopoietc cellsHypocellular/Hypoplastic<30% hematopoietic cellsAplasticmarrow has very few or no hematopoietic cells500required cells to be counted1000preferred cells to be counted2:1 to 4:1myeloid-eryhtroid (ME) ratio30 um or morediameter of macrophageNon specific asterase (+)cytochem of mast cellsMacrophagewhen monocyte come into tissues it becomesKupffer cellsWhen monocyte come into liver it is calledErythroidmother of RBC15-25 umdiameter of mast cellsChloroacetate esterase (+)cytochem of mast cellsOsteoblastit synthesize new matrix and has watebug/comet appearanceOsteoclastlarge, multinucleated100 um or morediameter of osteoclastMegakaryocyteslargest cells in the normal bone marrowLymphoid stem cell (CFU-L) and Hematopoietic stem cell (CFU-C)Uncommitted stem cells (CFU-S) proliferate and will become..?CFU-BL and CFU-TLLymphoid stem cell (CFU-L) will proliferate and will becomeB-lymphCFU-BL will proliferate and will become..Plasma cellB-lymph will mature and will form intoT lymphocytesCFU-TL will mature and form intoCFU- G,M , CFU-Eo, CFU-B, BFU-E, CFU-MEgHematopoietic stem cell (CFU-C) will proliferate and will becomeCFU-M and CFU-GCFU-G,M will proliferate and will becomemonoblastCFU-M will mature and will becomePromonocyteMonoblast will mature and will becomeMonocytePromonocyte will mature and will form MonocyteMyeloblastCFU-G will mature and will becomePromyelocyteMyeloblast will mature and will becomeN. MyelocytePromyelocyte will mature and will becomeN. metamyelocyteN. myelocyte will mature and will becomeN. bandN. metamyelocyte will mature and will becomeNeutrophilN band will mature and will formMyeloblastCFU-Eo will mature and will becomeE. myelocyteMyeloblast will mature and will becomeE. metamyelocyteE. myelocyte will mature and will becomeE. bandE. metamyelocyte will mature and will will mature and will formMyeloblastCFU-B will mature and will becomePromyelocyteMyeloblast will mature and will becomeB. myelocytePromyelocyte will mature and will becomeB. metamyelocyteB. myelocyte will mature and will becomeB. bandB. metamyelocyte will mature and will becomeBasophilB. band will mature and fwill ormCFR-EBFU-E will proliferate and will becomePronormoblastCFR-E will mature and will becomeBasophilic normoblastPronormoblast will mature and will becomePolychromatophilic normoblastBasophilic normoblast will mature and will becomeOrthochromic normoblastPolychromatophilic normblast will mature and will becomeReticulocyteOrthochromic normoblast will mature and will becomeErythrocyteReticulocyte will mature and will formMegakaryoblastCFU-MEg will mature and will becomePromegakaryocyteMegakaryoblast will mature and will becomeMegakaryocytePromegakaryocyte will become and will becomePlateletsMegakaryocyte will mature and will formGranulopoiesisFormation of basophil, neutrophil and eosinophilMonocytopoiesisformation of monocytesErythropoiesisformation of red blood cellsThrombocytopoiesisformation of plateletslymphopoiesisformation of lymphocytesColony forming unit-Spleenuncommitted stem cellCFU-Sorigin of the cells they reproduce themselvesDifferentiation processin order for CFU-S to become lymphoid it needs to undergoColony forming unit-lymphoidTotipotential stem cellsCU-Lit goes to lymph nodes to mature it can proliferate to become plasma cell that produces antibodiesPlasma cellWhat produces antibodiesCFU- G,M and Burst Forming Unit- eythroidintermediate committed stem cell processCFU-G and CFU-Mit can differentiate CFU-G,M and also committed stem cellCFU-Megakaryocytesmother unit of plateletsCFU-S, CFU-L, CFU-CWhat cells are unrecognizable to each otherMyeloblast Promyelocyte Metamyelocyte Band Maturedstages of CFUCytokine and Interleukinexamples of growth hormone factorsCytokinegeneral term for a very small quantity bioactive protein which a cell producesCytokinemanages communication of cells and is concerned with multiplication and specialization/functional reveleation of a cellMyeloid pluripotent stem cellsPluripotent stem cell formsIL-1 IL-3 IL-3 IL-6 SCFTranscription factors of pluripotent to myeloid pluripotent stem cellErythrocyte megakaryocyte neutrophil, monocyte eosinophil basophilWhat are myeloid pluripotent's precursor cellIL-3 GM-CSFTranscription factors of neutrophil, monocyteAsymmetric cell divisionparent cell are being preserved while the daughter is transformed to become comittedMedullaplace where hematopoiesis happensGrowth hormonegives signal to the cell that they need a new cellTransduction signalsignal that tells the cells that they need new cellsInterleukinactive protein material which an immunocompetent cell producesLymphocyte, Monocyte, Macrophasewhat are the examples of immunocompetent cellsErythrocyteerythrocutePlateletMegakaryoblastNeutrophilMyeloblastMonocyteMonoblastEosinophilEosinophil myeloblastBasophilBasophil myeloblastGM-CSF G-CSFTranscription factors of interleukin myeloblastGM-CSF M-CSFTranscription factors of interleukin monoblastIL-3 GM-CSF IL-5transcription factors of interleukin eosinophil myeloblastIL-3 IL-4transcription factors of basophil myeloblastIL-1, IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF, SCFTranscription factors of myeloid multipotential hematopoietic stem cells to common myeloid progenitorFLT-3 LIGAND TNF- alpha TGF- beta 1 IL-2 IL-7 SDF-1transcription factors of common lymphoid progenitor to small lymphocyteIL-1 IL-2 IL-4 IL-6 IL-7Transcription factors of small lymphocyte to t lymphocyteSCF TPO IL-R GM-CSFtranscription factors of common myeloid progenitor to megakaryoteSCF EPO IL-R GM-CSFtranscription factors of common myeloid progenitor to erythrocyteGM-CSFTranscription factors of common myeloid progenitor to myeloblastSCF G-CSF GM-CSF IL-3 IL-6transcription factors of myeloblast to basophilSCF-G-CSF GM-CSSF IL-3 IL-6transcription factors of myeloblast to neutrophilIL-3 IL-5 GM-CSFTranscription factors of myeloblast to eosinophilSCF M-CSF GM-CSF IL-3 IL-6transcription factors of myeloblast to monocytestem cell factorSCFThrombopoietinTPOInterleukinILGranulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factorGM-CSFMacrophage-colony stimulating factorM-CSFStromal cell-derived factor 1SDF-1FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligandFMS 3 ligandTumor necrosis factor-alphaTNF-aTransforming growth factor betaTGF-bCCAATenhancer binding protein- Alpha (C/EBPalpha)CCAT1. PU.1 2. GATA-1 3. Ikaros 4. Gfi1 5. IRF81. Megakaryoblast 2. Promegakaryocyte 4. Megakaryocyte 4. PlateletMaturation series of megakaryocyte20% of precursors in megakaryoblast25% of precursors in promegakaryocyte55% of precursors in megakaryocyte14-18 umdiameter of megakaryoblast15-40 umdiameter of promegakaryocyte30-50dimeter of megakaryocyteroundnucleus of megakaryoblastindentednucleus of promegakaryocytemultilobednucleus of megakaryocytehomogenouschromatin of megakaryoblastmoderately condensedchromatin of promegakaryocytedeeply and variably condensedchromatin of megakaryocyte3:1nuclear cytoplasmic (NC) ratio of megakaryoblast1:2nuclear cytoplasmic (NC) ratio of promegakaryocyte1:4nuclear cytoplasmic (NC) ratio of megakaryocyteAbsent in megakaryoblast, promegakaryocyte and megakaryocytemitosis is?Megakaryoblastendomitosis is present inPromegakaryocyteendomitosis ends inMegakaryocyteendomitosis is absent inBasophiliccytoplasm of megakaryoblastBasophilic and granularcytoplasm of promegakaryocyteAzurophilic and granularcytoplasm of megakaryocyteA-granules and dense granuleswhat is present in megakaryoblast, promegakaryocyte and megakaryocyteMegakaryoblastround oval luteus luteus 3x larger than cytoplasm basophilic no granulesPromegakaryocyteindented basophilic undifferentiated cell in the megakaryotic series has active endomitis, does not divide cytoplasmRotary motionnever move forward in promegakaryocyteMegakaryocyteparent cell of platelet largest cell in the bone marrow 50-100 52-64 nucleus can be seen multinucleatedplateletsnot nucleated, circular to oval20-30%percentage of platelet that will be kept on the skin for storage70%blood platelets that stays in circulation for 10 daysGranulomare and Hyalomare2 types of granular central regionGranulomaremembrane-bound protein reddish-purple (azurophilic granules)Hyalomareclear-peripheral zone pale basophilic zonePlateletsacts both in primary and secondary hemostasisForm platelet plug participate in plasma coagulation preserve the endothelial lining of the blood cellsmajor function of platelets2-4 umsize of platelets6.8-10.2 fLmean platelet volumeLight blue to purplem granularplatelet cytoplasmAdhesiveness aggregation viscous metamorphosisplatelet properties1. Peripheral zone with glycoprotein receptors 2. structural zone with contractile microtublues (thrombasthenin) 3. organelle zone with granules 4. membrane with open caninucalar and tubule systems for increased surface area and rapid releaseplatelet anatomyPrimary plateletwhat activates the secondary platelet?Bernard-Soilier Syndromelack of GP1B cause hemorrhageGlanzmann thrombasthenialack of GP23A no form of plug that will cause bleedingVon Willebrand Diseaselack of VWFvon Willebrand factor (vWF)protein that anchors platelets to collagen fibers during the platelet adhesion phase of hemostasis protein that help the blood clot when neededStorage pool diseaselack of dense bodyGray Platelet Syndromelack of alpha granuleDefective procoagulant activityaffected procoagulant no aggregationCyclo-oxygenase defficiencytubular defect that leads to reduced thromboxane productionSteel factor Thrombopoietintranscription factor of stem cell to multipotent progenitor cellSteel factor IL-3 IL-6 IL-11 Leukemia inhibitory factor G-CSF Thrombopoietintranscription factor of multipotent progenitor cell to committed megakaryocyte progenitor cellSteel factor IL-3 IL-6 IL-11 Leukemia inhibitory factor Erythropoietin Thrombopoietintranscription factor of committed megakaryocyte progenitor cell to immature megakaryocyteIL-6 IL-11 Thrombopoietintranscription factor of immature megakaryocyte to mature megakaryocyteThrombopoietintranscription factor of mature megakaryocyte to plateletsGATA 1 GATA 2Intrinsic factorSF1 TPOExtrinsic factora5beta1integrin (purple)allbbeta3integrin (pink)a5beta1 allbbeta3integrins4-7 umdiameter of hsc<15 umdiameter of stage 0 (promegakaryoblast)15-50 umdiameter of stage 1 (megakaryoblast20-80 umdiameter of stage 2 (promegakaryocyte)>80 umdiameter of stage 3 (megakaryocyte)2 umdiameter of plateletsCD41 CD42Bstage 0- promegakaryoblastCD41 CD42B PF4stage 1- megakaryoblastCD41 CD42B PF4stage 2- promegakaryocyteCD41 CD42B PF4stage 3- megakaryocyte