Triglycerides: 3 fatty acid molecules, animal fats(marbling of meat, lard, butter, bacon fat, palm and coconut oil, oils from nuts and seeds)
Phospholipids: 2 fatty acids, soluble in water.
Sterols: lipids containing multiple rings of carbon atoms, essential components of cell membranes, bile, many hormones.
very energy dense, the major energy used during rest, used for energy during exercise, especially after glycogen is depleted, used for energy storage. provide a source of concentrated energy.
for fat-soluble vitamins(A,D,E,K)
3.) ESSENTIAL TO MANY BODY FUNCTIONS
cell membrane structure, nerve cell transmissions, protection of internal organs, insulation to retain body heat
4.) PROVIDES FLAVOR AND TEXTURE TO FOODS
taste, smell, adds tenderness to foods
5.) MAKES US FEEL SATIATED
fats are more energy dense than carbs or protein, fats take longer to digest - slow the digestive process
Visible fats: butter, cream, mayo, dressings
Invisible fats: baked goods, dairy, processed meat
Beneficial fats: omega 3, fish, walnuts, soy, canola, flax seeds.
Switch to more healthful fats without increasing total fat intake: use olive oil or canola oil in place of butter/margarine. select low-fat or non-fat dairy products.
Fat replacers: chips, cakes, cookies, olestra/olean
Cardiovascular disease: dysfunction of heart or blood vessels. can result in hear attack or stroke
RISK FACTORS: being overweight, physical inactivity, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, low HDL levels, heredity, male, menopausal females.
PREVENTION: physical activity, avoid smoking, eat less total fat, moderate intake of alcohol increases HDL, omega 3 fatty acids. diet high in fruits and vegetables, rich in antioxidant nutrients.
begins in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid breaks down protein structure and activates pepsin(an enzyme that breaks down proteins into short polypeptides and amino acids.
Denaturation: proteins uncoil and lose their shape, caused by heat, acid, base, metals, alcohol.
continues in the small intestine. pancreatic enzyme called Proteases complete the digestion of proteins into single amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides.
amino acids are transported via the portal vein to the liver to be converted to glucose or fat, build new protein, be used for energy, be released into the blood to other cells.
health benefits: lower intake of fat and total energy, lower blood pressure, reduce the risk of heart disease, fewer digestive problems, reduce the risk of some cancers, reduce the risk of kidney disease, kidney stones, and gallstones.
vegetarian diets can be low in some nutrients: protein, iron, calcium, zinc, B12.
protein-energy malnutrition: disorder caused by inadequate intake of protein and energy. once malnutrition has taken place, he immune system begins to fail.
Marasmus: disease resulting from severly inadequate intakes of protein, energy and other nutrients. essentially a slow starvation.
symptoms: sever wasting of muscle tissue("skin and bones"), stunted physical growth, stunted brain development, anemia.
Kwashiorkor: disease resulting from extremely low protein intake while still getting adequate calories. may also be predicted by illness, stress(trauma, burns), infections. typically seen in children when weaned from breast milk to a high-carb/low-protein diet.
symptoms: some weight loss and muscle wasting, characterized by swelling of the arms, legs and stomach area. this swelling is actually edema(accumulation of fluids in body tissues), retarded growth and development.