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AP Psychology Unit 12 Vocabulary
by Jacqueline Chau
Terms in this set (47)
Introduction to Psychological Disorders (module heading)
Defining Psychological Disorders (heading)
How should we draw the line between normality and disorder?
- psychological disorder
-Disturbed, or dysfunctional, behaviors are maladaptive- they interfere with normal day-to-day life.
a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition. emotion, regulation, or behavior. (Adapted from American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
Understanding Psychological Disorders (heading)
How do the medical model and the biopsychosocial approach understand psychological disorders?
- During the Middle Ages, mental illness was thought of as the devil's work.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.; it is heritable; there is a debate on whether it is diagnosed too often.
The Medical Model (sub-heading)
-Philippe Pinel insisted that madness is a sickness of the ind caused by severe stress and inhumane conditions.
-Eventually, hospitals replaced asylums, and the medical world began searching for physical causes and treatments of mental disorders.
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
The Biopsychosocial Approach (sub-heading)
-Today's psychologists contend that all behavior arises from the interactions of nature and nurture.
-Cultures differ in their sources of stress, and they produce different ways of coping. But some disorders are worldwide like schizophrenia and depression. This biopsychosocial approach recognizes that mind and body are inseparable.
Classifying Psychological Disorders (heading)
How and why do clinicians classify psychological disorders?
- In psychiatry and psychology, diagnostic classification aims not only to describe a disorder but also to predict its future course, imply appropriate treatment, and stimulate research into its causes.
- DSM-5; Physicians use the detailed system to guide medical diagnoses and define who is eligible for treatments.
-Critics of the DSM have long faulted it for casting too wide a net and bringing almost any kind of behavior within the compass of psychiatry.
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Labeling Psychological Disorders (heading)
Why do some psychologists criticize the use of diagnostic labels?
- Once we label a person, we view that person differently.
- Surveys in Europe and North America have demonstrated the stigmatizing power of labels. Getting a job can be hard for those just released from a mental hospital.
-People express greatest sympathy for people whose disorders are gender atypical.
-In real life, people with disorders are more likely to be the victims of violence than the perpetrators.
-Not only can labels bias perception, they can also change reality. When teachers are told certain students are gifted or when students expect someone to be hostile, they may act in ways that elicit the very behavior expected.
Rates of Psychological Disorders (heading)
How many people suffer, or have suffered, from a psychological disorder? Is poverty a risk factor?
- Those born in the U.S. have higher rates of mental disorder than those that immigrate here (immigrant paradox).
- The incidence of serious psychological disorders has been doubly high among those below the poverty line. Poverty and mental disorders in a way cause each other, though it varies with each disorder.
- Usually by early adulthood do disorders strike.
Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (module heading)
What are the different anxiety disorders?
- anxiety disorders: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and phobias.
-Two other disorders involve anxiety, though the DSM-5 classifies them separately: OCD and PTSD
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (heading)
- people with this disorder usually have symptoms lasting 6 months or more. About 2/3 of people with GAD are women.
- one of GAD's worst characteristics is that the person may not be able to identify is cause. It can lead to high BP.
- Most with GAD were maltreated and inhibited as children. By age 50, GAD becomes fairly rare.
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
Panic Disorder (heading)
-Anxiety suddenly escalates into a terrifying panic attack- a minutes-long episode of fear that something horrible is about to happen. Smokers have at least a doubled risk of panic disorder.
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations. Often followed by worry over a possible next attack.
- Many people accept their phobias and live with the, , but others are incapacitated by their efforts to avoid the feared situation.
- Not all phobias have specific triggers, Social anxiety disorder is shyness taken to an extreme.
- agoraphobia: If the fear is intense enough, it may become agoraphobia, fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes.
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.
social anxiety disorder
intense fear of social situations, leading to avoidance of such. (Formerly called social phobia.)
fear or avoidance of situations, such as crowds or wide open places, where one has felt loss of control and panic.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (heading)
What is obsessive-compulsive disorder?
- Obsessive thoughts and compulsive behavior cross the fine line between normality and disorder when they persistently interfere with everyday living and cause distress. Although the person knows them to be irrational, the anxiety-fueled obsessive thoughts become so haunting, the compulsive rituals so senselessly time-consuming, that effective functioning becomes impossible. OCD is more common among teens and young adults than among older people.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
a disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (heading)
What is PTSD?
- What defines and explains PTSD is less the event itself than the severity and persistence of the trauma memory. A month after 9/11, 8.5 percent of Manhattan residents were suffering PTSD, most as a result of the attack. Those living near the World Trade Center, about 20 percent reported telltale signs.
-Research indicates that the greater one's emotional distress during a trauma, the higher the risk for posttraumatic symptoms.
- A sensitive limbic system seems to increase vulnerability, by flooding the body with stress hormones again and again as images of the traumatic experience erupt into consciousness. Some finding suggest that some PTSD symptoms may actually be genetically predisposed.
- Only about 1 in 10 women and 1 in 20 men develope PTSD. Despite some lingering stress symptoms in the Holocaust survivors, most experienced essentially normal physical health and cognitive functioning.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
positive psychological chances as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises.
Understanding Anxiety Disorders, OCD, and PTSD (heading)
How do the learning and biological perspective explain anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD?
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder.
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks with fie or more symptoms, at least one of which must be either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)
compulsive fretting; overthinking about our problems and their causes.
a psychological disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or diminished or inappropriate emotional expression.
a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.
false beliefs, often persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
false sensory experience, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
somatic symptom disorder
a psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause. (See conversion disorder and illness anxiety disorder.)
a disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found. (Also called functional neurological disorder).
illness anxiety disorder
a disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. (Formerly called hypochondriasis.)
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personalities disorder.
an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight.
an eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use), excessive exercise, or fasting.
significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa.
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which a person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
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