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Segment 5 Exam
Terms in this set (83)
Harlow and Harlow
Experiment in the 1950's. The monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother.
Got birds to imprint on him
developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment
Authoritarian, Permissive, and Authoritative
Swiss developmental psychologist who proposed a four-stage theory of cognitive development based on the concept of mental operations (Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operational, formal operational)
zone of proximal development - area between a child's level of independent performance and the child's level of assisted performance
scaffolding - learning situation in which there is a gradual release of responsibility to the learner, as the learner becomes more responsible for their own learning
American psychologist who used hypothetical moral dilemmas to study moral reasoning. His influential theory of the stages of moral development is a milestone in developmental psychology. Stages: Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional
Infant cognition: conservation, object permanence, egocentrism, theory of mind
Ethic of Care - used women as sample to redefine Kohlberg's stages
8 stages of psychosocial development; noted for completeness from infancy through old age; coined "identity crisis" of adolescence
hypothesis is that language determines the way we think (linguistic determinism)
Inborn Universal Grammar - all human languages have the same building blocks
(Nurture) Learn language from imitation and make associations.
A developing human during the first eight weeks after fertilization has occurred.
9 weeks to birth
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
A learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established
A very strong feeling which guides someone
Moro (startle) Reflex
blow in face, on top of abdomen: infant responds with rapid abduction/extension of arms with adduction, embracing/hugging of arms; dissappears after 1-2 months of age. if absent or unilateral, may suggest brain damage or a birth originated injury
A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
Emergence of posture, movement & development of skills in mobility & manipulation.
Sexual maturation; the end of childhood and the point when reproduction is first possible
First menstrual period
Cessation of menstruation
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
A progressive disease characterized by neurofibrillary tangles and plaque in the brain, lack of acetylcholine. Neurons of frontal and medial temporal lobes are affected, with biochemical & structural changes.
Piaget's 4 Stages
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
Pre-conventional, conventional, post-conventional
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
the inability to remember events that occurred during one's early years (before age three)
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Ability to recognize that objects can be transformed in some way, visually or physically, yet still be the same in number, weight, substance, or volume
In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors
Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
theory of mind
People's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
Process of talking to and guiding oneself mentally rather than aloud.
(Vygotsky) giving help to a less experienced person
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
pondering a deeper meaning beyond the concrete and literal (formal operational)
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
An inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Ainsworth's Attachment Styles
secure vs. insecure attachment
Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
Infancy, toddlerhood, preschool, elementary, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, late adulthood
Authoritarian, permissive, authoritative
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
A research method that compares participants in different groups at the same time.
A research method that studies the same participants multiple times over a period of time
In language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Meaning of words and sentences
Arrangement of words in phrases and sentences
babbling stage, one-word stage, two-word stage
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
Noam Chomsky's theory that all the world's languages share a common underlying structure
language acquisition device
Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
when a grammar rule is not used correctly. ie, "he
me a present"
Believed intelligence is general-"G-Factor": People who are bright in one area are usually bright in other areas as well.
devised theory of multiple intelligences: logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic (he's still working on more)
3 ways of processing info--analytically, creatively, practically; most intelligent people can do all 3
Thought of Emotional Intelligence : able to manage own emotions, is capable of self-motivation and self direction, recognizes emotions in others, and is able to handle various types of relationships. People with both high EQ and high IQ are the most intelligence
professor at Stanford who revised the Binet test for Americans. The test then became the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. He is also known for his longitudinal research on gifted kids. Believed in innate intelligence
pioneered the modern intelligence-testing movement.
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. (ie. low performance on testing because of racial stereotypes)
The rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations
Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).
A test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Many standardized tests allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals.
provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test...allows a psychologist to determine how a person scores relative to other people.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (non verbal) subtests. Mean score is 100, SD 15
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
WISC. IQ test designed for school-age children. Test assesses potential in many areas, including vocabulary, knowledge, memory, spatial comprehension. Mean score is 100, SD 15
(mental age/chronological age) X 100
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
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