22 terms

CANCER TAKE 2

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Benign Neoplasia present by
*Non invasive (remain localised)
*slow & even growing
*edges move outward smoothly
*histologically similar to parent cell
*Never metastasize
*Seldom recur after removal
*Can secret too much hormone
Malignant Neoplasia present by
*edges move outward irregularly
*Dissimilar from cell of origin
*Invades
*Rapid to very rapid growth rate (ignores chemical signals to stop growing)
*Frequently recur after removal
Risk Factors
*Chronic inflammation(eg inflammatory bowel disease)
*Family History and genetics (brest cancer gene BRCA1 &2)
*Tobacco
*Alcohol
*Diet (eg escessive of low fibre;pickled & smoked foods)
*Reproductive & sexual behaviour
*Occupational and Industrial pollution
*Radiation (eg UV)
*Infection (eg Hep & C)
*Hormones (eg oestrogen linked with brest, ovarian)
(Pathogenesis-Origin) Six types of concurrent (happening at same time) mutations occur in malignancy
1. Autostimulation of growth factors
2. Ignorance of antigrowth signals
3. Evasion of apoptosis (cell death)
4. Immortality - telomeres (keep enabling cells to reproduce)
5. Angiogenesis (blood supply)
6. Tissue invasion & metastasis
(Origin) Autostimulation of growth factors
They tell the cell to divide when it shouldnt
*A gene that causes the transformation of normal cells into cancerous tumor cells, especially a viral gene that transforms a host cell.**
(Origin) Ignorance of antigrowth signals
Tells cell when not to divide
(Origin) Evasion of apoptosis (cell death)
If a cell may be given a signal to kill itself
*Cancer cells will ignore these signals*
(Origin) Immortality - telomeres (keep enabling cells to reproduce)
Cancer cells can divid indefinately, they don't tear off telomeres which become smaller and smaller within each cell division
(Origin) Angiogenesis (blood supply)
Stimulation of new blood vessels.
(tumour cells release tumour blood supply factors which helps deliver nutrients to to neoplasm encouaging rapid growth)
(Origin) Tissue invasion & metastasis
Cancer may
*destroy healthy tissue,
*surviving in the blood stream and
*establish a new site of growth to spread
Symptoms
*Pain
*Fatigue
*Cachexia: Wasting away
*Anaemia
*Infection
Treatment
*Surgery
*Chemotherapy
*Radiotherapy
*Hormone Therapy
*Immunotherapy
Cachexia symptoms
Linked with tumour necrosis factor (TNF),the immunes attempt at combating the cancer. Severe wasting away.
Cachexia is
*severe wasting, emanciation and decreased quality of life
*common towards end stage of life
*not always clear why
LUNG CANCER =
smokers, asbestos
BREAST CANCER=
Genetic/family history
HODGINS LYMPHOMA=
between 20-30 yrs & 60-70yrs
COLON CANCER=
low fibre/poor diet,
pickled/smoked foods
age
genetics
smoking
ulcerative colitis
diverticulosos
LIVER/STOMACH
alcohol
ENDOMETRIAL/UTERINE=
wmn 50-60.
biggest risk = life long exposure to unopposed oestrogens (hihg oestrogen, low progesterone)
PANCREATIC CANCER=
smoking
parts/history of pancreatitis
other risks unknown
MELANOMA CANCER=
light complexion
sun exposure
bad sunburn