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Politics of the United States
Gov test one
Terms in this set (74)
system by which a society organizes itself and allocates authority in order to accomplish collective goals and provide benefits to that society
the process of gaining or exercising control within a government by an association of persons with shared goals or objectives for society
government by citizens, is often associated with capitalism, an economic system in which the means of production are controlled by individuals who invest in business and industry
advocates public or government control, whether directly or through regulation, over the means of production
government in which a small class of political and economic elites control the government
capitalist economic system
In the United States, our representative democracy generally adheres to a...
private businesses produce and sell most consumer goods and services, earning a profit on these
Some goods or services, such as public safety and education, cannot be produced in sufficient quantities or for a profit; the government provides these...
...such as water and other natural resources that are used by individuals but must be protected for the benefit of all
government in which political power-influence over institutions, leaders, and policies-is controlled by the people
such as the United States, citizens do not govern directly; government institutions and policy are determined by elected representatives. Representative democracies, however, often have a check on the power of citizens in order to protect the rights of minorities.
people participate directly in government decisions, instead of relying on elected representatives.
a single, usually hereditary, ruler holds political power.
governments, the state, usually controlled by a single leader or small group of elites, controls virtually every aspect of citizens' lives.
government holds that a small group of elites controls power while other citizens have little or no influence.
government holds that competing interest groups influence the government and hold political power.
acknowledges that competing interests, whether elitist or pluralist, vie for government influence.
the collective value of all social networks and the willingness of these networks to work together toward a common goal
increases the power of an individual to influence government policies and actions
requires an informed citizenry to vote for candidates and advocate for desired policies, along with other forms of civic engagement
Reasonable people may disagree about how and by whom these tasks should be accomplished
collection of popular views about something, perhaps a person, a local or national event, or a new idea.
process of learning the norms and practices of a political system through others and societal institutions. The process begins at a young age
The attitudes and beliefs that help shape our opinions on political theory and policy form
occurs when individuals' political ideologies and opinions are more likely to be strictly defined by the political party with which they align
asking a population a series of questions, collecting responses as data, and analyzing and interpreting that data.
Informal polls that do not apply rigorous methodology
applies a methodology
limited number of people selected in such a way that each has an equal chance of being chosen
a group whose demographic distribution is similar to that of the overall population. Larger samples make a poll more accurate but after a correct representative sample is obtained, any increases in accuracy are minor and not cost-effective
simply worded, easy to understand, unambiguous, and free of bias
encourage respondents to give a desired answer
Polls that intentionally ask leading questions in order to convey politically biased campaign information intended to change minds
margin of error
a number that states how far the poll results may be from the actual opinion of the total population of citizens
make polls less accurate
measure the public's positive feelings about a politician can affect voter turnout
Constant media coverage of candidate performance makes elections seem closer than they are, changing voter behavior and encouraging conclusions unsupported by data
Increased media coverage of candidates with strong poll numbers can lead to the --- in which a candidate is presumed to be the winner.
one of the most influential thinkers of the Enlightenment. His writings form the basis for many modern political ideas.
September 1787, making it the oldest written constitution remaining in effect. The Framers drafted the document during a period of ineffective national government under the Articles of Confederation.
It was created through a series of significant compromises among factions that favored a strong federal government over strong state governments, states that had different and often competing economic interests, and those concerned that more federal power would reside in more populous states at the expense of smaller states.
granted by God, including the right to life, liberty, and property, which lead people to join together through a social contract to form a government to protect their common interests
American colonies were denied elected --- in Parliament
First Continental Congress
Colonist formed to oppose British rule.
Declaration of Independence
declared the independence of the American colonies from British rule
Articles of Confederation provided
strong self-governing states and a weak central government
national government lacked the power to impose
Articles of Confederation
failed when only five states sent delegates
decided to scrap the Articles of Confederation altogether and form a new government.
provided for representation in a bicameral national legislature with the number of representatives from each states based on population
New Jersey Plan
provided for a unicameral national legislature with an equal number of representatives from each state.
- called for a bicameral legislature in which:
•representation in the House of Representatives would be based on each state's population (as called for under the Virginia Plan), and
•representation in the Senate would consist of an equal number of representatives from each state (as called for under the New Jersey Plan).
•Regarding election of legislators, the Great Compromise provided that:
•members of the House would be elected to two-year terms by popular vote of eligible voters in each state, and
•state legislatures would elect members to the Senate for six-year terms.
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)
Legislative, Executive, Judicial
Article I provides for a bicameral legislature—the U.S. Congress—comprised of the House of Representatives and the Senate, makes laws
Article II provides for the U.S. president to serve as the head of state, head of government, and commander in chief of U.S. armed forces, enforces laws
Article III provides for the establishment of the Supreme Court of the United States and allows the creation of lower federal courts through congressional action, interprets laws
checks and balances
ensure that one branch of government does not exceed its authority.
form of government in which different levels of government act relatively autonomously and have the power to act directly on people within their jurisdiction
The federal judiciary serves as a check on actions of both the legislative and executive branches through a process
subnational governments depend heavily on the national government, which holds virtually all power except those powers granted to subnational governments by the central government
under which most power is decentralized and possessed by the subnational governments, the central government's power relies on the consent of the subnational governments
define the powers of the national government and state governments; others restrict the power of the national government and state governments to act within certain areas.
states that the Constitution, federal laws, and treaties are the "supreme Law of the Land."
Chief Justice John Marshall
was best known for the principle of judicial review established in Marbury v. Madison (1803), which reinforced the influence and independence of the judiciary branch of the U.S. government.
political arrangement in which the national government and state governments act with distinct areas of jurisdiction
federal government expanded its power in several areas, including economic regulation, civil rights protection, the creation of social welfare programs to benefit the elderly and disabled, environmental protection, and the promotion of urban renewal and affordable housing
decentralizing national power, increasing revenue sharing with state and local governments, and giving greater discretion to state and local governments over spending federal grants
encourages innovative approaches to social and economic policy
The national (or federal) government may only act within specific areas in which the Constitution explicitly grants the national government power
All powers not explicitly granted to the federal government are reserved for the states
states that the U.S. Constitution, federal laws, and treaties made by the United States are the "supreme Law of the Land"
Those who favored ratification
those who opposed ratification of the Constitution
Charlotte Forten Grimke
she taught newly liberated enslaved people in South Carolina
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