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6 Written questions

6 Multiple choice questions

  1. Heart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava
  2. yellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.
  3. 1-glomerular filtration - driven by filtration pressure
    2-Tubular reabsorption and secretion - movetment of solutes and water in and out for the tubules
    3-water conservation regulation of the volume concentration of urine
  4. the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
  5. the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption
  6. NaCl electrical gradient
    glucose - co-transported by sodium glucose transport proteins, diffusion
    nitrogenous wastes - diffusion
    other electrolytes - solvent drag
    water - aqua porins

5 True/False questions

  1. Describe how the nervous system, hormones, and the kidney itself regulate glomerular filtrationFiltration pressure:
    Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
    -golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
    -glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
    -capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
    -capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg

          

  2. Describe the functional anatomy of the ureters, urinary bladder, and male and female urethra.primary function: production and excretion of urine

    Other functions: blood plasma filtration, regulation of blood volume and pressure, regulation of body fluid osmolarity, secretion of renin and erythropoietin, regulate the bodes acid base balance, calcium homeostasis, glucogenisis.

          

  3. Explain how the kidney maintains an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla that enables the collecting duct to functionADH increases water reabsorption's thereby decreasing urine volume.
    The collecting duct concentrates urine, water is reabsorbed in the medulla, 4x deep in the medulla

          

  4. Name the major nitrogenous wastes and identify their sourcesHeart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava

          

  5. Define excretion and identify the systems that excrete wastesthis is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
    respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.

          

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