6 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- NaCl electrical gradient
glucose - co-transported by sodium glucose transport proteins, diffusion
nitrogenous wastes - diffusion
other electrolytes - solvent drag
water - aqua porins
- Renal corpuscle:
-the glomerulus produces filtrate
-proximal convoluted tubule
-Descending limb of the nephron loop active transport of salts
-ascending limb of nephron loop
-Distal convoluted tubule
-collecting duct receives filtrate from many DCTs
-papillary duct merges collecting duct together
- the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla
- Glomerular filtration rate is controlled by adjustors glomerular blood pressure:
autoregulation - mycogenic mechanism (keeps flow constant)
macula densa on DCT monitors flow (increase of arterioles bp causes vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole)
signals juxtamedullary cells to constrict (decrease of arteriole bp causes vasoconstriction of arteriole)
strenuous exercise or acute condition cause afferent arterioles to constrict, lower GFR and urine production, redirecting blood flow to visceral areas.
rennin release entering chain of angiotensinogenII to vasoconstrictor vessels elevating blood pressure.
promotes water and NA reabsorption.
Stimulates sensation of thirst.
- 1-glomerular filtration - driven by filtration pressure
2-Tubular reabsorption and secretion - movetment of solutes and water in and out for the tubules
3-water conservation regulation of the volume concentration of urine
- overview, six organs
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
5 True/False questions
trace the flow of blood through the kidney → yellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.
Describe who the nephron regulates water excretion → the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption
Explaint eh forces that promote and oppose glomerular filtration → Filtration pressure:
Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
-golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
-glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
-capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
-capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg
Name the major nitrogenous wastes and identify their sources → protein catabolism amino acids and NH2 which removed by the liver as uea, there is also uric acid and creatinin.
Uric acid derives form nucleic acid catabolism.
Creatininie derives from creatine phosphate catabolism
Describe the composition and properties of urine → the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption