6 Written questions
6 Multiple choice questions
- 1-glomerular filtration - driven by filtration pressure
2-Tubular reabsorption and secretion - movetment of solutes and water in and out for the tubules
3-water conservation regulation of the volume concentration of urine
- the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption
- yellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.
- the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
- overview, six organs
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
- the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla
5 True/False questions
Describe the functional anatomy of the ureters, urinary bladder, and male and female urethra. → primary function: production and excretion of urine
Other functions: blood plasma filtration, regulation of blood volume and pressure, regulation of body fluid osmolarity, secretion of renin and erythropoietin, regulate the bodes acid base balance, calcium homeostasis, glucogenisis.
Describe how the nervous system, hormones, and the kidney itself regulate glomerular filtration → Glomerular filtration rate is controlled by adjustors glomerular blood pressure:
autoregulation - mycogenic mechanism (keeps flow constant)
macula densa on DCT monitors flow (increase of arterioles bp causes vasoconstriction of afferent arteriole)
signals juxtamedullary cells to constrict (decrease of arteriole bp causes vasoconstriction of arteriole)
strenuous exercise or acute condition cause afferent arterioles to constrict, lower GFR and urine production, redirecting blood flow to visceral areas.
rennin release entering chain of angiotensinogenII to vasoconstrictor vessels elevating blood pressure.
promotes water and NA reabsorption.
Stimulates sensation of thirst.
Explaint eh forces that promote and oppose glomerular filtration → Filtration pressure:
Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
-golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
-glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
-capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
-capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg
Name the major nitrogenous wastes and identify their sources → Heart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
>arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava
Explain how the nervous system and urethral sphincters control the voiding of urine → yellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.