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6 Written questions

6 Multiple choice questions

  1. Renal corpuscle:
    -the glomerulus produces filtrate
    -proximal convoluted tubule
    -Descending limb of the nephron loop active transport of salts
    -ascending limb of nephron loop
    -Distal convoluted tubule
    -collecting duct receives filtrate from many DCTs
    -papillary duct merges collecting duct together
  2. Filtration pressure:
    Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
    -golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
    -glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
    -capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
    -capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg
  3. the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla
  4. the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
  5. 1-glomerular filtration - driven by filtration pressure
    2-Tubular reabsorption and secretion - movetment of solutes and water in and out for the tubules
    3-water conservation regulation of the volume concentration of urine
  6. this is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
    respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.

5 True/False questions

  1. Name, locate and describe the organs of the urinary systemthis is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
    respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.


  2. Describe who the nephron regulates water excretionthe generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption


  3. explain how the collecting duct and antidiuretic hormone regulate the volume and concentration of urine200ml of urine will still activate stretch receptors. this inhibits sympathetic neurones - relaxing internal sphincter; while stimulating parasympathetic neurones - stimulating detrusor muscles
    The external urethral sphincter is under voluntary control


  4. Explain how the nervous system and urethral sphincters control the voiding of urineyellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.


  5. trace the flow of blood through the kidneyHeart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava