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6 Written questions

6 Multiple choice questions

  1. the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption
  2. 1-glomerular filtration - driven by filtration pressure
    2-Tubular reabsorption and secretion - movetment of solutes and water in and out for the tubules
    3-water conservation regulation of the volume concentration of urine
  3. the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
  4. protein catabolism amino acids and NH2 which removed by the liver as uea, there is also uric acid and creatinin.
    Uric acid derives form nucleic acid catabolism.
    Creatininie derives from creatine phosphate catabolism
  5. the counter current multiplier. This recaptures NaCl and returns it to renal medulla
  6. Filtration pressure:
    Glomerular filtration is governed by the same pressures that determine filtration in the other blood capillaries.
    -golmerular hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure) ~60mmhg
    -glomerular osmotic pressure (~32mmhg) opposing filtration
    -capular hydrostatic pressure (~18mmhg) exerted by fluids in capsule
    -capsule colloidal osmotic pressure ~0mmhg

5 True/False questions

  1. Define excretion and identify the systems that excrete wastesoverview, six organs
    kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra


  2. trace the flow of blood through the kidneyHeart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava


  3. Trace the flow of fluid throughout the renal tubeless, and each functionRenal corpuscle:
    -the glomerulus produces filtrate
    -proximal convoluted tubule
    -Descending limb of the nephron loop active transport of salts
    -ascending limb of nephron loop
    -Distal convoluted tubule
    -collecting duct receives filtrate from many DCTs
    -papillary duct merges collecting duct together


  4. Explain how the nervous system and urethral sphincters control the voiding of urine200ml of urine will still activate stretch receptors. this inhibits sympathetic neurones - relaxing internal sphincter; while stimulating parasympathetic neurones - stimulating detrusor muscles
    The external urethral sphincter is under voluntary control


  5. Describe the composition and properties of urinethe generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption