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6 Written questions

6 Multiple choice questions

  1. Heart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava
  2. this is the separation of wastes from body fluids and eliminating them; by four systems:
    respiratory, itegumentary, digestive, urinary.
  3. overview, six organs
    kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
  4. Ureters transport urine to urinary bladder. the Bladder stores the urine until full; the urethra is the the exit by which urine leaves the body.
  5. the secretion is the movement of molecules form the blood into the tubules. this moves urea, uric acid, bile salts, ammonia, catecholamines, many drugs using a concentration gradient from peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule.
  6. the generation of a salinity gradient allows the collecting duct to concentrate urine, also helped by electrolyte reabsorption

5 True/False questions

  1. Explain how the kidney maintains an osmotic gradient in the renal medulla that enables the collecting duct to functionADH increases water reabsorption's thereby decreasing urine volume.
    The collecting duct concentrates urine, water is reabsorbed in the medulla, 4x deep in the medulla

          

  2. Name the major nitrogenous wastes and identify their sourcesprotein catabolism amino acids and NH2 which removed by the liver as uea, there is also uric acid and creatinin.
    Uric acid derives form nucleic acid catabolism.
    Creatininie derives from creatine phosphate catabolism

          

  3. Trace the flow of fluid throughout the renal tubeless, and each functionHeart>aorta>renal A>Segmental A>Interlobar A>arcuate A>interlobular A>Afferent arteriole>Glomerulus>efferent arteriole:
    1. Peritubular capillaries>interlobular vein
    2. Vasa recta>arcuate vein
    >arcuate V>interlobular V>renal V> Vena cava

          

  4. Explaint eh forces that promote and oppose glomerular filtrationyellow due to urochrome, smells as bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, density range 1.001-1.028 mmhg, ranges osmolarity 50mOsm/L to 1,200mOsm/L. pH range 4.5-8.5, usually 6.0 with the 95% water, 5% solutes urea, NaCl, KCl, creatinine, uric acid.

          

  5. explain how the collecting duct and antidiuretic hormone regulate the volume and concentration of urineADH increases water reabsorption's thereby decreasing urine volume.
    The collecting duct concentrates urine, water is reabsorbed in the medulla, 4x deep in the medulla