89 terms


social structure
the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships
social interaction
ways in which people respond to one another
social reality reflects ___
a group's power within a society
crucial aspects of the relationship between dominant and subordinate groups is the ___
ability of the dominant or majority group to define a society's values
William Thomas recognized
that the "definition of the situation" could mold the thinking a personality of the individual
Thomas thought in what type of perspective
What did Thomas observe?
that people respond not only to the objective features of a person or situation but also the meaning the person/situation has for them
Elements of social structure include
statuses, social roles, groups, social networks, and social institutions
any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society, form the lowest to highest position; can hold a # of statuses at the same time
ascribed status
assigned to person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics; cannot be changed
give an example of ascribed status
gender, age, ethnic, and blood relations
achieved status
comes through our own efforts
give an example of achieved status
job, friend, student
master status
status that dominates others and determines a person's general position within a society
give an example of master status
president obama is most known as president than as a father, friend, brother, etc.
social roles
sets of expectations fro people who occupy a given social position or status
Roles are significant component of social structure. T/F
through a functionalist perspective roles do what?
it contributes to a society's stability by enabling members to anticipate the behavior of others and to pattern their own actions
role conflict
occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person
another type of role conflict occurs when
individuals move into occupations that are not common among people with their ascribed status; male nurses, female firefighters
role strain
describe the situation that occurs when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations
any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis
primary group
small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation
example of primary group
gang members, sororities, family living in same household
secondary group
formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding
example of secondary group
any group or category to which people feel they belong
group to which people feel they do not belong
reference group
any groups that individuals use as a standard in evaluating themselves and their own behavior
example of reference group
high school students joins social circle of rockers so he dresses up like a rockstar and listens and dresses to the same thing as his peers in that group
reference groups have two purposes which are
to serve normative function by setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief, and to perform a comparison function by serving a standard against which people can measure themselves and others
social network
a series of social relationships that links a person directly to others and indirectly to more people through the others
social institutions
organized patterns of beliefs and behaviors centered on basic social needs, such as replacing personnel and preserving order
Durkheim argued that social structure depends on ___
the division of labor in a society or on the manner in which tasks are performed
mechanical solidarity
Durkheim implied that all individuals perform the same tasks; (e.g. all parents prepare food, take care of children, etc)
organic solidarity
collective consciousness resting on the need a society's members have for one another (Durkheim believed individuals become more interdependent in much the same way as organs of the human body)
community is of rural life in which people have similar backgrounds and life experiences (more primary)
ideal type characteristic of modern urban life in which people are strangers and feel little in common with others (more secondary)
sociocultural evolution
Lenski sees human societies as undergoing a process of change characterized by a dominant pattern;he views society's level of technology is critical to the way it is organized
cultural information about how to use material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs
preindustrial societies
hunting-and-gathering and horticultural
industrial societies
depend on mechanization to produce its goods and services
postindustrial societies
Daniel Bell defines it as societies whose economic systems are engaged primarily in the processing and control of information
postmodern society
technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images
formal organization
group designed for a special purpose and structured for maximum efficiency; fulfill enormous variety of personal and societal needs, shaping the lives of everyone
component of formal organization in which rules and hierarchical ranking are used to achieve efficiency
Max Weber's approach
emphasized the basic similarity of structure and process found in the otherwise dissimilar enterprises of religion, government, education, and business; saw bureaucracy as a form of organizations
ideal type
construct or model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated
Weber proposed that bureaucracy displays five characters:
division of labor, hierarchy of authority, written rules, impersonality, and employment based on technical qualifications
trained incapacity
workers become specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice obvious problems
Peter Principle
every employee within a hierarchy tends to rise to his or her level of incompetence
division of labor
produces efficiency on large-scale organization; trained incapacity; narrow perspective (e.g. teachers teach, janitors clean)
hierarchy of authority
clarifies who is in command;deprives employees of a voice in decision making; permits concealment of mistakes (e.g. pope is highest authority in catholic church)
reduce bias;contributes to cold and uncaring atmosphere;discourage loyalty to company (e.g. big companies and government)
employment based on technical qualifications
discourages favoritism and reduces petty rivalry; discourages ambition to improve; fosters peter principle
written rules
let workers know what is expected; stifle initiative and imagination; lead to goal displacement (e.g. doctors must know what they are doing)
social control
refers to the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant behaviors
social control occurs on all levels of our society for example
obeying our parents because they are our parents; peer groups introduce us to informal norms such as dress codes
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
what is the ultimate formal sanction
death penalty
what is the challenge to effective social control
people often receive competing messages about how to behave
functionalists contend that people must respect social norms if ___
a group or society is to survive
Milgram defines conformity as
going along with peers-individual of our own status who have no special right to direct behaviors
compliance with higher authority in a hierarchical structure
Milgram made two distinction between what two important levels of social control?
obedience and conformity
informal social control
casually to enforce norms (e.g. smiles, laughter)
formal social control
carried out by authorized agents such as police officers, manager, etc
governmental social control
sociologists see the creation of laws as a __
social process; its created in response to a perceived need for formal social control
legal order reflects___
values of those in a position to exercise authority
what is the primary source of conforming and obedient behavior
behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group
deviance involves
the violation of group norms, which may or may not be formalized into law
describe the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups
Durkheim views through a functionalist perspective that punishment established within a culture help to define ___
acceptable behavior and thus contribute to social stability. If improper acts were not sanctioned, people might stretch their standards of what constitutes appropriate conduct
loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective; state of normlessness that typically occurs during a period of profound social change and disorder, such as time of economic collapse
Merton's theory of deviance
people adapt in certain ways by conforming to or deviating from such cultural expectations
anomie theory of deviance
Merton believed that there was conformity (non-deviant), innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion (all four deviant); accepted was conformity ritualism and rebellion
cultural transmission through interactionist
emphasize that people learn criminal behavior through social interactions
Sutherland's differntial association
process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to rule violation
social disorganization theory
increases in crime and deviance can be attributed to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions such as the family, school, church, and government
labeling theory
does not focus on why some individuals come to commit devianct acts but to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants, while other similar behavior are not seen in such harsh terms (sutherland -interactionist)
societal-reaction approach
also labeling theory; response to an act not behavior itself that determines deviance
conflict theorists view that people with power __
protect their own interests and define deviance to suit their own needs
anomie is what type of perspective; who; and what
functionalist; durkheim; adaptations to societal norms
cultural transmission; differential association what type of perspective; who; and what
interactionist; sutherland; patterns learned through others
social disorganization is what type of perspective; who; and what
interactionist; shaw; communal relationships
conflict is what type of perspective; who; and what
conflict;quinney;dominance by authorized agents discretionary justice
feminist is what type of perspective; who; and what
conflict/feminist; adler and chesney-lind; women as victims a perpetrators