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75 terms

Thanatology 1.1

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Definition of Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Clinical Psychology
"The field of psychology which is designed to understand, diagnose and treat abnormal or deviant behavior"
Cognitive Psychology
"The field of psychology which studies internal mental processes, which include thinking, memory, concept formation, perception, and the processing of information"
Counseling Psychology
"From the Latin, ""to know;"" the study of the origins and consequences of thoughts, memories, beliefs, perceptions, explanations, and other mental processes"
Developmental Psychology
The field of psychology which study the way in which behaviors develop and change during a lifespan
Educational Psychology
"The field of psychology which studies education systems, methods of teaching, methods of learning, curricula and other factors that influence the learning process"
Personality Psychology
The specialization of study in which a persons personality is tied to the mental processes of the individual
Social Psychology
The field of Psychology that seeks to understand how behavior effects others
Other Psychology Areas
"These areas may include Experimental, Psychobiological, Industrial or Organizational, Abnormal, or Grief (the field we will concentrate on)."
Structuralism Psychological Perspective
"The school of psychological thought that is concerned with reducing experience to its basic parts, determining the laws by which the parts are synthesized and investigating the structure and content of mental state by introspction"
Functionalism Psychological Perspective
"The school of psychological thought which proposed that the function, not the structure, of conscious experience should be studied"
Behaviorism Psychological Perspective
The school of psychological thought that views learning as the most important aspect of an organism's development. Behaviorism seeks to objectively measure behavior and the way in which stimulus-response relationships are formed
Cognitive Psychological Perspective
"The field of psychology which studies internal mental processes, which include thinking, memory, concept formation, perception, and the processing of information"
Psychoanalysis Psychological Perspective
"A therapy through which one seeks to bring unconscious desires into consciousness and make it possible to resolve conflicts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences"
Humanistic Psychological Perspective
A school of psychological thought that emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual and the search for self-actualization
Biological Psychological Perspective
The school of psychological thought in which all our behaviors can be traced to the biological functions of the brain. Therefore most of our behaviors are caused by the chemicals of our physical body
Socio-cultural Psychological Perspective
The school of psychological thought that is concerned with how one interacts with society and how society and the culture impact a person
Psychologist
"Those individuals who have a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Psychology, but are not medical doctors"
Psychiatrist
"A Medical Doctor who has completed specialized training in the field of mental health, such as a psychiatric recedency"
Psychoanalysis
"A therapy through which one seeks to bring unconscious desires into consciousness and make it possible to resolve conflicts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences"
Psychotherapy
A category of methods for treating psychological disorders in which the primary technique is conversation between patient and the therapist
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
"Maslow believed that each individual had 5 distinct levels of needs. Each individual would begin by fulfilling the needs of the first level (physiological needs - air, food, water) and then progress to the next set of needs. As each level of needs is met, the individual begins working to satisfy the next higher level, until self-actualization is achieved"
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Listed
1 Self Actualization Needs | 2 Esteem Needs | 3 Love and Belongingness Needs | 4 Safety Needs | 5 Physiological Needs
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
"Hertzberg believed that there were 2 main factors that governed human motivation (Maintenance and Motivational). If the Maintenance goals are not achieved, the employee (individual) would experience a level of dissatisfaction. Once the Maintenance goals are achieved, the employee can work toward the Motivational goals which cause the individual to excel in the given area. "
Hygiene/Maintenance Factors
"are needed to ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not lead to higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction"
Motivation Factors
which cause the individual to excel in the given area. These results come from internal generators of an employee
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
"McGregor believed that employers or supervisors use one of 2 different motivational styles. For progress to be made, the motivational style of the employee must be matched by the motivational style of the employer. The 2 theories (styles) of management are Theory X and Theory Y. "
Theory X
believes employees are lazy and only concerned for money
Theory Y
believes that employees will excel if given the right environment and opportunities.
Theory Z
"This motivational theory began in Japan and is an extension of Theory Y. It states that employees are more motivated if they actively participate in decision-making at ALL levels of the organization. US Companies have begun to follow the lead of the Japanese and now have Quality Teams and Employee participation in management. "
Equity Theory
"This theory states that people are motivated by past experience of the amount of reward given for effort put forth. That is to say, if an employee works extremely hard but receives a reward equal to those that put little effort into the project, that employee will not work as hard in the future."
Expectancy Theory
The Motivation to accomplish a certain task is linked to the probability of receiving the reward when the task is complete
Drive Theory
"According to this theory, biological needs arising within our bodies create unpleasant states that lead us to behaviors to eliminate those states (feelings). An example of this is being thirsty and getting a drink."
Arousal Theory
"A theory of motivation suggesting that human beings seek an optimal level of activation (desire), not minimal levels of desire. An example is if you are a creative person who loves to knit, you will be driven to produce a perfectly knitted product. The desire to be the best we can be"
Hunger and Thirst
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Sensation seeking
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Sex
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Need for achievement
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Aggressive Motivation
the desire to harm or injure others in some manner
Emotions
"reactions consisting of subjective cognitive states, physiological reactions, and expressive behaviors"
Stages of Memory
"Encoding, Storage, Retrieving"
Encoding Memory
Converting information into a form that can be entered into memory
Storage Memory
Somehow retaining information over varying periods of time
Retrieving Memory
Locating and accessing specific information when it is needed at later times
Repression
a defensive mechanism relating to memory if the memory is too painful.
Psychoanalytic Theory
developed by Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytic Theory Defined
"This theory believes that consciousness and therefore Personality have 3 levels: Ego, SuperEgo, Id"
Ego
"the mostly conscious state of thoughts and perceptions, that serves as the mediator between the Superego and the Id"
SuperEgo
"the Mostly Preconscious state of memories and stored knowledge, that has the ideals, morals, and conscience that you incorporated from your parents"
Id
"the unconscious state of fears, irrational wishes, immoral urges, violent motives and unacceptable desires, that is the pleasure seeker of the mental processes"
Freudian slips
the errors in speech that in fact betray unconscious thoughts or impulses
Ego Defense Mechanisms
"When the Ego feels it is unable to control the impulses from the id, it (and the individual) experience anxiety. To reduce such feelings, the ego uses various defenses mechanisms"
Repression
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Projection
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Reaction formation
"a defensive mechanism by which people behave in a way opposite to what their true but anxiety-provoking feelings would dictate. An Example is a competitive athlete who chooses to sit out a game, match or meet to prevent a potentially disheartening failure"
Regression
Returning to more familiar and often more primitive modes of coping
Denial
"The defense mechanism by which a person refuses to see things as they are because such facts are threatening to the ego; a defense mechanism, closely related to repression, in which the individual simply denies the existence of the events that have aroused anxiety"
Displacement
Redirection of emotion to other targets
Sublimation
Redirection of emotion to culturally or socially useful purposes
Rationalization
"Supplying a logical, rational, socially acceptable reason rather than the real reason for an action"
Trait Approach to Personality
"The question has long been whether our personality comes from our heredity or from our environment or both. If it comes only from heredity, then we are never able to change our personality. If it comes only from environment, then why do siblings who are raised in the same environment have different personalities"
Social Behavior
"The way people get along in groups conveys a great deal about the personality, emotions and feelings of people"
Types of social behaviors
Social Comparison | Conformity | Obedience | Agression | Prejudice | Leadership
Social Comparison
a member of the group compares him/her self to others in the group
Conformity
action in accord with prevailing social standards, attitudes, practices, etc.
Obedience
the state or quality of being obedient.
Agression
the action of a state in violating by force the rights of another state, particularly its territorial rights; an unprovoked offensive, attack, invasion
Prejudice
...
Leadership
...
Social facilitation
the group actually brings about a result the person could not have had on his/her own
The motivational theory in which employees are involved in all levels of the organization
Theory Z
People are motivated by past experience of the amount of reward given for effort put forth
Equity Theory of Motivation
The field of psychology which studies internal mental processes which include thinking, memory, concept formation, perception, and the processing of information
Cognitive Psychology
The school of psychological thought that is concerned with reducing experience to its basic parts determining the laws by which the parts are synthesized and investigating the structure and content of mental state by introspection
Structuralism
A theory of motivation suggesting that human beings seek an optimal level of activation (desire) not minimal levels of desire. An example is if you are a creative person who loves to knit, you will be driven to produce a perfectly knitted product. The desire to be the best we can
Arousal Theory