22 terms

LIVER FAILURE

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Liver failure occurs-
when hepatocytes in large parts of liver become damaged beyond repair and liver no longer able to function
Liver failure -
occurs gradually and over many years. Acute liver failure occurs rapidly in as little as 48 hrs, difficult to detect.
Most common causes (AETIOLOGY) of acute liver failure are;
*Tylenol overdose
*Hep A,B amd C, esp in children
*reactios to certain prescription and herbal meds
*ingestion of wild mushrooms
Most common cause (AETIOLOGY) of chronic liver failure, liver fails over months-years includes -
* Hep B and C
* long term alcohol consumption
*Cirrhosis
*hemochromatosis (store too much iron)
*Malabsorption syndromes eg celiac and inflammatory bowel disease.
Celiac Disease is
an immunologically mediated disease in susceptible people, caused by intolerence to gluten
Celiac Symptoms
*mainly seen in caucasions
*typical onset is childhood, but may occur at any age
*symptoms vague - may take years before a diagnosis.
*may include fatigue, apathy, diarrhoea, abnormal stools, abdominal pain and bloating, vomiting
*can also exhibit malabsorption symptoms - rickets, bleeding, anaemia.
Two types of Inflammatory Bowel Disease -
Ulcerative colitis
Chrohn disease
Ulcerative colitis Symptoms
Defaecation up to 20 times per day
Stools often cloudy and watery
Dehydration - weight loss - fever - vomiting
Ulcerative Colitis Compliations
Anal fissures
Cancer
Liver disease
Crohns Symptoms
Chronic diarrhoea with adbominal pain, fever, anorexia and weight loss.
Chrons sufferers have increased risk of colon cancer.
Crohns Complications
Increased risk of GI cancer
Chronic hepatitis
adhesions
malabsorption
cirrhosis of liver
internal & external fistulas and abscesses
Crohns
Begins with crypt inflammation and abscesses
Ulcerative Colitis
Not much is know about about triggers - diet and infection have been implicated
Ulcerative Colitis & Crohns Treatment
Immunosuppressant drugs
ABs
Surgical resection or complete colonostomy
Portal Hypertension
Both a cause and a complicaiton fo liver diseases and failure, where obstruction leas to blood circumventing the portal system
Portal Hypertension complications
Varices
Splenomegaly
Ascites
Hepactic encephalopathy
Disorders of the liver
Viral Hepatitis
Fulminant (sudden and severe) Hepaitis
Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis Alcoholic
Acute Liver Failure Management
If detected early enough effects can be reversed
Chronic Liver Failure Management
Manage contributing factors
Aim to save part of the liver still functioning
Transplant maybe required
Cirrhosis=
irreversible disease affecting liver structure & function
Cirrhosis signs & symptoms=
weakness
fatigue
loss of appetite
nausea
vomiting
weight loss
abdominal pain and bloating
itching
bleeding
jaundice
Cirrhosis Complications
insulin resistance
type 2 diabetes
liver cancer
immune system dysfunction
kidney & lung failure