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the most influencial early Mesopotamian civilization (1200-900 B.C.E)


the first major urban civilization in South America


hoofed animals, indegenous to the Andes Mts.; the only domesticated beast of burden in the Americas before the Europeans arrived; provided meat and wool; used for transportation of goods and specialized production and trade


Celtic priests who belonged to a highly respected and well-organized fraternity with religious, judicial, and educational functions; they practiced secret lore

Neo-Assyrian Empire

empire extending from western Iran to Syria-Palestine; conquered by the Assyrians of northern Mesopotamia; they used force and terror and exploited the wealth and labor of their subjects; also continued the cultural and scientific developments of the Mesopotamian civilization


Chief deity of the Assyrians, he stood behind the king and brought victory in war; also the name of an important Assyrian religious and political center

mass deportation

the forcible uprooting of large numbers of people or entire communities, from their homes in order to transport and resettle them

Library of Ashurbanipal

contained official documents and an array of literary and scientific texts of Mesopotamia


the land between the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and the Jordan River, occupied by the Israelites

Hebrew Bible

a collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites

First Temple

a monumental sanctuary built in Jerusalem by King Solomon to be the religious center for the Israelite god Yahweh; eventually it was destroyed, replaced with King Herod's Second Temple, then destroyed again


the absolute belief in Yahweh as the one and only god


used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland


Semetic-speaking Canaanites found in present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Israel; they found Carthage


city located in present-day Tunisia; founded by Phoenicians; it became a major commercial center and naval power in the Western Mediterranean until it was defeated by Rome in the 3rd century B.C.E.


walled enclosures in which were buried thousands of small, sealed urns containing the burned bones of children

Neo-Babylonian kingdom

major political and cultural center during the 7th and 6th centuries; monarchs Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar took over the southern portion of the Assyrian domains; they initiated diaspora of the Jews


an exclusive privelage to carry on a business, traffic, or service, granted by the government


any class or group of society sharing common cultural features

social hierarchy

like a class-division system, whose main purpose is to resolve conflict

trade diaspora communities

networks of foreign merchants who might live briefly or for many generations in a host society

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