New Proficiency Gold - Unit 1 - Nearest and Dearest
Terms in this set (74)
to alienate (sy) from (sg / sy)
1. to make somebody less friendly or sympathetic towards you
His comments have alienated a lot of young voters.
2. to make somebody feel that they do not belong in a particular group
Very talented children may feel alienated from the others in their class.
enstranged from somebody
no longer friendly, loyal or in contact with somebody
He became estranged from his family after the argument.
Formerly close friends, they had been estranged from each other for many years.
enstranged from something
no longer involved in or connected with something, especially something that used to be important to you
She felt estranged from her former existence.
to build (sg) up
to create or develop something
We've built up good relationships with our clients.
to keep to something
1. to follow
2. to talk or write only about the subject that you are supposed to talk or write about
Nothing is more irritating than people who do not keep to the point.
3. to stay in and not leave a particular place or position
She's nearly 90 and mostly keeps to her room.
4. to avoid leaving a path, road, etc.
Keep to the track—the land is very boggy around here.
to keep yourself to yourself
to avoid meeting people socially or becoming involved in their affairs
Nobody knows much about him; he keeps himself very much to himself.
to keep something to yourself
to not tell other people about something
I'd be grateful if you kept this information to yourself.
Kindly keep your opinions to yourself in future!
to carry something on
to carry on with something
to continue doing something
After he left I just tried to carry on as normal.
Carry on with your work while I'm away.
to carry on with somebody (old-fashioned)
to have a sexual relationship with somebody when you should not
His wife found out he'd been carrying on with another woman.
to keep up with somebody
to continue to be in contact with somebody
How many of your old school friends do you keep up with?
to fall off
to decrease in quantity or quality
Attendance at my lectures has fallen off considerably.
to take somebody on
1. (esp. BrE) to employ somebody
She was taken on as a trainee.
2. (no passive) to play against somebody in a game or contest; to fight against somebody
The rebels took on the entire Roman army.
to take something on
(no passive) to begin to have a particular quality, appearance, etc
His voice took on a more serious tone.
to take (sg / sy) on
to decide to do something; to agree to be responsible for something or somebody
I can't take on any extra work.
We're not taking on any new clients at present.
to give something up
If you give up something, you stop doing it or having it. I was trying to give up drugs...
The doctors gave up hope as her condition worsened.
If you give up, you decide that you cannot do something and stop trying to do it.
After a fruitless morning sitting at his desk he had given up.
If you give up your job, you resign from it.
to turn to (sy / sg)
to go to somebody or something for help, advice, etc
She has nobody she can turn to.
to get together with somebody (informal)
to meet with somebody socially or in order to discuss something
We must get together for a drink sometime.
to get somebody or something together
to collect people or things in one place
I'm trying to get a team together for Saturday.
to acquire something
1. to gain something by your own efforts, ability or behaviour
She has acquired a good knowledge of English.
2. to obtain something by buying or being given it
How did the gallery come to acquire so many Picassos?
I've suddenly acquired a stepbrother.
at a pinch (GB) (US: in a pinch)
used to say that something could be done or used in a particular situation if it is really necessary
We can get six people round this table at a pinch.
The recipe is for beef, but at a pinch you could use chicken.
a thing or person that makes you feel better when you are unhappy or disappointed
The children were a great consolation to him when his wife died.
to resent something or somebody
to feel bitter or angry about something, especially because you feel it is unfair
I deeply resented her criticism.
The children resented the new woman in their father's life.
to regale somebody with something
to amuse or entertain somebody with stories, jokes, etc
He regaled us with tales of his days as a jazz pianist.
to disclose something to somebody (formal)
to give somebody information about something, especially something that was previously secret
The spokesman refused to disclose details of the takeover to the press.
chapter and verse
(idiom) the exact details of something, especially the exact place where particular information may be found
I can't give chapter and verse, but that's the rough outline of our legal position.
to exasperate somebody
to annoy or irritate somebody very much
Her moods exasperated him.
to strand somebody (usu. passive)
to leave somebody in a place from which they have no way of leaving
The strike left hundreds of tourists stranded at the airport.
(used after a noun) (disapproving)
used to say that a thing is similar to something else but lacks many of its serious or important qualities
I would describe this movie as 'Hitchcock lite'.
too large, great etc. to be measured
Her contribution was of immeasurable importance.
1. in a way that is not detailed or exact
I can vaguely remember my first day at school.
There was something vaguely familiar about her face.
3. in a way that shows that you are not paying attention or thinking clearly
He smiled vaguely, ignoring her questions.
1. (of an agreement, arrangement, etc.) not definite or certain because you may want to change it later
We made a tentative arrangement to meet on Friday.
2. not behaving or done with confidence
Her English is correct but tentative.
I'm taking the first tentative steps towards fitness.
a belief or feeling that something is true or that something will happen, although there is no proof
It was impossible to make assumptions about people's reactions.
His actions were based on a false assumption.
a close thing
(idiom) a situation in which success or failure is equally possible
We got him out in the end, but it was a close thing.
by leaps and bounds
in leaps and bounds
(fixed expression) very quickly; in large amounts
Her health has improved in leaps and bounds.
the depths of despair
(fixed expression) the feeling of having lost all hope
One harsh word would send her into the depths of despair.
be banging (etc.) your head against a brick wall (informal)
(idiom) to keep trying to do something that will never be successful
Trying to reason with them was like banging my head against a brick wall.
a piece of cake (informal)
(idiom) a thing that is very easy to do
The whole thing was so easy - in fact, it was a piece of cake.
1. almost; nearly
It is close to midnight.
2. in a position very near to something
The picture looks very different when you see it close to.
fond of somebody
feeling affection for somebody, especially somebody you have known for a long time
I've always been very fond of your mother.
Over the years, I have grown quite fond of her.
fond of something
fond of doing something
finding something pleasant or enjoyable, especially something you have liked or enjoyed for a long time
affectionate towards somebody
showing caring feelings and love for somebody
He is very affectionate towards his children.
attached to somebody or something
full of affection for somebody or something
I've never seen two people so attached to each other.
We've grown very attached to this house.
to carry (sg) out
1. to do something that you have said you will do or have been asked to do
to carry out a promise/a threat/a plan/an order
2. to do and complete a task
to carry out an inquiry/an investigation/a survey
Extensive tests have been carried out on the patient.
to make out (informal)
used to ask if somebody managed well or was successful in a particular situation
How did he make out while his wife was away?
to form (sy / sg) (up) (into sg)
to move or arrange objects or people so that they are in a group with a particular shape; to become arranged in a group like this
First get students to form groups of four.
The teams formed up into lines.
to do something up
1. to fasten a coat, skirt, etc
He never bothers to do his jacket up.
2. to make something into a package
She was carrying a package done up in brown paper.
to take up
to continue, especially starting after somebody/something else has finished
The band's new album takes up where their last one left off.
to take something up
to make something such as a piece of clothing shorter
This skirt needs taking up.
to make something up
1. to put something together from several different things
2. to form something
Women make up 56% of the student numbers.
3. to invent a story, etc, especially in order to trick or entertain somebody
He made up some excuse about his daughter being sick.
to stride, strode, strode (+ adv / prep)
(not used in the perfect tenses) to walk with long steps in a particular direction
We strode across the snowy fields.
She came striding along to meet me.
to stroll (+ adv / prep)
to walk somewhere in a slow relaxed way
People were strolling along the beach.
to trudge (+ noun / + adv / prep)
to walk slowly or with heavy steps, because you are tired or carrying something heavy
He trudged the last two miles to the town.
The men trudged up the hill, laden with supplies.
We spent the morning trudging around the mall looking for a suitable gift.
to shuffle (+ adv / prep)
to walk slowly without lifting your feet completely off the ground
He shuffled across the room to the window.
The line shuffled forward a little.
to make a loud unpleasant noise
police cars with lights flashing and sirens blaring
The radio was blaring (out) rock music.
Music blared out from the open window.
1. to make a very loud, deep sound
The engine roared to life.
2. to shout something very loudly
The crowd roared.
3. to laugh very loudly
He looked so funny, we all roared.
It made them roar with laughter.
to make a loud deep sound
Outside, thunder boomed and crashed.
1. to make a very loud deep noise
A voice thundered in my ear.
2. to shout, complain, etc. very loudly and angrily
He thundered against the evils of television.
to rear somebody or something
(often passive) to care for young children or animals until they are fully grown
(syn:) bring (sy) up, raise
She reared a family of five on her own.
at the earliest opportunity
as soon as possible
They intend to close the school at the earliest opportunity.
fly the nest (informal)
(idiom) (of sy's child) to leave home and live somewhere else
spread one's wings
(idiom) to become more independent and confident and try new activities, etc
Going to college gave her the chance to spread her wings.
to come into something
(no passive) to be important in a particular situation
I've worked very hard to pass this exam—luck doesn't come into it.
to provoke somebody into something
to provoke somebody into doing something
to provoke somebody to do something
to say or do something that you know will annoy somebody so that they react in an angry way
The lawyer claimed his client was provoked into acts of violence by the defendant.
Be careful what you say—he's easily provoked.
(after an adjective) a person who achieves the particular level of success that is stated
a low achiever, a high achiever
to shunt somebody or something (+ adv / prep)
(usu. disapproving) to move sy / sg to a different place, especially a less important one
John was shunted sideways to a job in sales.
boring and always the same
(syn:) dull, tedious
a humdrum existence / job / life
the use of computers to perform humdrum tasks
grind (singular) (informal)
an activity that is tiring or boring and takes a lot of time
the daily grind of family life
It's a long grind to the top of that particular profession.
1. apart from that
He was slightly bruised but otherwise unhurt.
2. used to state what the result would be if something did not happen or if the situation were different
Shut the window, otherwise it'll get too cold in here.
3. in a different way to the way mentioned; differently
Bismarck, otherwise known as 'the Iron Chancellor'.
in, at or to another place
Our favourite restaurant was closed, so we had to go elsewhere.
despite something that you have just mentioned
The old system had its flaws, but nevertheless it was preferable to the new one.
despite this fact
The book is too long but, nonetheless, informative and entertaining.
in a way that is the opposite or reverse of something
You can add the fluid to the powder, or, conversely, the powder to the fluid.
used to emphasize how complete something is
We're so utterly different from each other.
to dribble (sg) (+adv./prep.)
(in football ( soccer ) and some other sports) to move the ball along with several short kicks, hits or bounces (= cselez(ve vezetni a labdát)
She dribbled the ball the length of the field.
He dribbled past two defenders and scored a magnificent goal.
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