Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first person in history to
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Terms in this set (102)
What is the correct order for the application of Koch's postulates? I. Inoculate suspect agent into test subject and observe that subject develops disease of interest.
II. Isolate and culture suspect agent in the laboratory.
III. Find suspect agent is every case of disease of interest but not in healthy hosts.
IV. Recover and isolate suspect agent from test subject.
Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that the former havethylakoidsWhich of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?Gram-positive bacteria onlyWhy does immersion oil improve resolution?Reduces refractionYou are examining a bacterial smear on a light microscope. You observe pinkish-red bacilli and blue cells of various shapes. You are probably looking at a smear prepared with the ________ stain.gramAnabolic reactions may be characterized asforming large molecules from smaller moleculesThe molecule that an enzyme acts upon is known as itssubstrateWhich of the following statements concerning glycolysis is TRUE?The glycolytic pathway has a net gain of two ATP molecules.Many vitamins are important ________ of enzymes.coenzymesPyruvic acid is a product ofglycolysisAnaerobic bacteria may use ________ as the final electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration.either nitrate and sulfateThe electron transport chain provides the energy foroxidative phosphorylationWhich of the following is/are common to chemiosmosis and the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?both electron transport and a proton gradientWhich of the following is associated with the Calvin-Benson cycle?RuBPThe energy captured by photophosphorylation is used to produce glucosethrough the Calvin-Benson cycleChemical reactions that can proceed toward either anabolism or catabolism are calledamphibolicWhich of the following is TRUE concerning the structure and function of enzymes?After an enzyme has catalyzed a reaction, it resumes its original shape and can interact with a new substrate molecule.A microorganism grows in the lab on medium containing mineral salts but no organic compounds. The organism is likely to be a(n)autotrophA(n) ________ organism require(s) oxygen for growth.obligate aerobicThe ________ of a population is the time it takes for the cells to double in numbergeneration timeThe use of salt and sugar in preserving various types of foods is an application of which of the following concepts?osmotic pressureWhich of the following scientist is not paired correctly with his/her contribution to the spontaneous generation argument?Needham experimented with fermentation as a basis for the germ theory of disease.All of the following are cellular microbes exceptviruses.In Pasteur's experiments on the cause of fermentation, which hypothesis was rejected when Pasteur heated grape juice in a swan neck flask?Air ferments grape juice.Which of the following is not an example of a role microbes play in the environment?vaccine manufacturingObligate intracellular parasites that are acellular best describesviruses.The practical applications of research into basic biochemistry include all of the following exceptthe ability to monitor a patient's response to treatment. the ability to treat metabolic diseases, such as phenylketonuria. the design of drugs to treat diseases. the identification of an unknown microbe based on its basic metabolic capabilities. all of the above are practical applications of basic biochemistry research.Multicellular parasites belonging to Kingdom Animalia would best be classified ashelminths.A microbiologist examines a diseased animal and finds rod-shaped bacteria present within the blood. The researcher decides to inject the bacteria-containing blood into a new, susceptible laboratory animal. The experimental animal becomes ill and eventually dies. Given this information, which of the following statements is true?Koch's postulates dictate that the agent must be isolated and grown outside the original host in a pure culture, and therefore the experiment is flawed and no etiologic agent can be determinedAll of the following are contributions to the field of microbiology by Robert Koch exceptdevelopment of the modern day germ theoryWhich of the following is prokaryotic? Select all that applybacteria archaeaThe use of ____________ allowed scientists to insert the gene for human blood-clotting factor into Escherichia coli, which then produced the clotting factor in pure form, to benefit hemophiliacs.recombinant DNA technologyWhich of the following scientists is mispaired with his/her contributions?Snow promoted antisepsis by spraying wounds, surgical incisions, and dressings with phenol to prevent infections.The use of microbes to manufacture chemical solvents (ethanol, propanol, acetone) would best be classified asindustrial microbiology.Gene therapy has been used to successfully treat several inherited immune deficiencies in humans.TrueWhich of the following statements best relates Pasteur's fermentation experiments to the modern day germ theory?Pasteur discovered that the spoiling of wine was caused by bacteria, and hypothesized that microbes also played a role in disease.Bacillus and Clostridium species produce unique dormant structures calledendospores.Fimbriae serve several important functions in bacterial cells. Which of the following is not a function of fimbriae?prevent dessicationArchael cells produce fimbriae-like hooked structures calledhami.The eukaryotic organelle that degrades poisonous metabolic wastes (free radicals, hydrogen peroxide) is called aperoxisome.Gram-negative bacterial cells contain all of the following structures exceptteichoic acidWhich of the following is evidence for the endosymbiotic theoryMitochondria and chloroplasts have 70S ribosomes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have circular DNA. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have two membranes. All of the above support the endosymbiotic theoryWhich structure exclusively belongs to bacterial cells?endosporeFlagella that cover the entire surface of the cell are calledperitrichousBacteria and Archaea have ribosomes.70SThe more diffuse (loose, water-soluble) bacterial glycocalyx is calleda slime layerWhich structure is found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes?ribosomesBest used for viewing pale objects. Light is reflected inside the condenser and does not directly enter the objective lens.Dark-field microscopeBest used to view living microorganisms or specimens that would be easily damaged by cover slips or staining procedures.Phase contrast microscopeAchieves up to 2000X magnification using light and a serious of lenses. The type used in lab.Bright-field, compound light microscopeUses molecules (dyes or natural compounds within the specimen) with a shorter wavelength than visible light to improve contrast and resolution.Fluorescence microscopeHigh-powered magnification and resolution for viewing the surface structures of cells or other specimens.Scanning electron microscopeHigh-powered magnification and resolution for viewing the internal structures of cells or organelles.Transmission electron microscopeOrganisms in the same order will also be in the sameclass.In the scientific name, Escherichia coli, coli is the name.speciesEukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea aredomains.Carl Woese identified differences in , which led to the identification of a new group or prokaryotes.rRNA sequencesThe biochemical reactions occurring in the cell that breakdown compounds and release energy are most specifically called reactions.catabolicThe final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration might be any of the following except .oxygenCarbon dioxide is released during redox reactions of during aerobic respiration.the citric acid cycle pyruvate oxidationThe NADH and FADH2 produced during the events of aerobic respiration are oxidized back to NAD+ and FAD, respectively, during .the electron transport chainproteases break downproteinsWhich of the following is/are reduced during glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the citric acid cycle?NAD+ FADWhich molecule serves as the most usable form of energy for the cell during biosynthesis reactions?ATPFermentation reactions generate reduced end-products.trueWhich of the following biochemical pathways is common to aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation?glycolysisEnzymes lower the activation energy needed for biochemical reactions to occur.trueLactic acid fermentation produces all of the following exceptpyruvateThe removal of an amino group from an amino acid during protein catabolism occurs in a process called .deaminationA key difference between oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis is the end products. Oxygenic photosynthesis produces , which is used during aerobic respiration as the final electron acceptor.oxygenCompetitive inhibition of an enzyme would involve the direct binding of an inhibitor to .the active siteWhen electrons are removed during metabolism, the item that loses electrons is .oxidizedWhich of the following is not a product of glycolysis?FADH2What is the function of lipases?Remove fatty acid chains from the glycerol backbone of triglycerides.Which of the following is not a product of alcohol fermentation?NADHEach step of a biochemical reaction, such as glycolysis, is catalyzed by a/an .enzymeWhen Gibbs free energy (delta G) is positive, the reaction is and energy is .anabolic; consumedWhich of the following is used as a backbone to build larger organic molecules?carbonThe first step in binary fission of bacteria is .DNA replicationAn organism that acquires energy from light and carbon from organic compounds is best classified as a .photoheterotrophAn organism is classified as a if it can survive and grow in the presence of high salt.halophileAn acidophile grows in .high hydrogen ion concentrationsAdding a bacterial cell to a liquid that has a high osmotic pressure would result in .the cell losing large amounts of water to its environmentAn organism that acquires its energy from chemical compounds and its carbon from the process of carbon fixation would be classified as a .chemoautotrophElements that are required for growth, but in very small amounts, are termed .trace elementsEstimating microbial growth is important for .determining the severity of specific types of infections analyzing effectiveness of pasteurization and other food preservation processes investigating fecal contamination in natural bodies of water, sewage treatment outflow, and recreational pools all of the above reasonsNiacin, also called vitamin B3, is important as a/anprecursor for NAD+ and NADP+In a closed bacterial growth system, which phase represents rapid DNA replication, growth, and reproduction?logDuring binary fission, duplicated chromosomesare attached to the cytoplasmic membraneComplex, synergistic relationships among numerous microbes that attach to surfaces such as teeth, medical devices, and mucous membranes and can have serious effects on human health are called .biofilmsWhich of the following is not a direct method for measuring microbial growth?turbidityBacteria growing at human body temperature would be classified asmesophilesExtremes in temperature and pH can cause cellular proteins todenature