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Micro. Exam #1 (2)
Terms in this set (43)
1. Which of the following GI bacteria does not typically have virulence factors letting it invade the bloodstream &/or intestinal epithelial cells?
a. Listeria monocytogenes c. Shigella
b. Escherichia coli d. Salmonella
1. What type of worm is Taenia?
d. None of the above
1. What is NOT TRUE about Helicobacter pylori?
a. Found in many asymptomatic patients
b. Can cause stomach ulcers
c. Uses urease to protect itself from stomach acid
d. Symptoms include weight gain and diarrhea.
2. Which of the following viruses is enveloped?
a. Mumps c. Rotavirus
b. Norwalk virus d. none of the above
3. Which of the following fungal cell structures would make the best antibiotic target in medicine?
a. Ribosome c. Cell membrane
b. Mitochondria d. Nucleus
4. Which fungi can produce flagella?
5. Candida albicans, like other dimorphic fungi, can do what (by definition)?
a. Infect multiple body parts (GI & female reproductive tract)
b. Infect multiple hosts (animals and humans)
c. Grow as two sexes (+ and -)
d. Switch between growth forms (yeast and filamentous)
6. Fungal filaments can be strengthened by crosswalls known as ______.
a. Conidia c. Hyphae
b. Conidiophores d. Septa
7. The ploidy level (n+n) in an Ascomycete is referred to as the _____.
a. Diploid c. haploid
b. Dikaryon d. yeast
8. Which of the following structures is found in BOTH Gram- and Gram+ bacteria?
a. Envelope c. Periplasm
b. Outer membrane d. Lipopolysaccharide
9. NAM and NAG are found in the bacterial _______
a. Plasma membrane c. cell wall
b. Slime layer d. magnetosome
1. A disease gained due to a medical procedure is known as a _____ disease.
2. Which of the following connects the plasma membrane and layers of the cell wall in Gram+ bacteria?
a. Teichoic acids
b. Murein lipoprotein
d. D-amino acids
3. A protein/glycoprotein outer layer that seems to help cells withstand osmotic pressure and interact with the immune system is the:
a. Glycocalyx c. capsule
b. S-layer d. slime layer
4. Which of the following is used in bacterial metabolism, containing the protein RuBiSCO?
a. Magnetosome c. carboxysome
b. Plasmid d. vacuole
5. How do bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes differ?
a. Bacteria have more rRNA and fewer proteins
b. Bacteria have less rRNA and fewer proteins
c. Bacteria have more rRNA and more proteins
d. Bacteria have more rRNA, and no proteins.
6. Which of these structures can be used to donate DNA to another bacterial cell, in a process known as conjugation?
d. Integral membrane proteins
7. Which of the following can make endospores?
a. All bacteria
b. Only some Gram+ bacteria
c. Only some Gram- bacteria
d. Only peritrichous bacteria
1. Which of the following is a malformed protein that can cause brain diseases?
a. Prion c. virusoid
b. Viroid d. virus
2. Each subunit of a viral protein coating is called a _____.
d. Integral membrane coating
3. After lysogenic virus DNA is excised from its host chromosome, what step can occur?
a. Biosynthesis c. Lysis of the host cell
b. Maturation/Assembly d. Insertion
1. T/F A patient with a latent infection is not infectious during periods of latency.
2. T/F Under the classic Koch's postulates, the causal agent of a disease should cause disease in 50% of healthy host organisms.
3. T/F An organism with a LOW ID50 is MORE infectious than one with a high ID50 .
4. T/F Calcium and dipicolinic acid are used to form the thick cortex of an endospore.
5. T/F A symptom is observable to a medical professional, while a sign is only sensed by the patient.
1. A fungus that is a common commensal in the vagina but can cause yeast infectious after some disruption such as antibiotic therapy.
2. This flagellated protist can cause sexually-transmitted disease in men and women, although men are likely to be asymptomatic.
3. The most common waterborne illness in the US, it is a flagellated protist causing recurrent diarrhea and greasy stools.
4. A flagellated protist that is commonly gained from swimming pools, as its sporozoites can survive chlorinated water. Infections can occur through contact with infected livestock or contaminated food or water.
5. An amoeboid protist that can cause bloody diarrhea and, in severe cases, liver abscesses.
6. Multiple viruses can cause this inflammation of the liver, which can be fatal if left untreated. Depending on the particular cause, it could be transmitted through food, water, surfaces, or bodily fluids.
7. This enveloped, dsDNA virus can cause genital sores, but can also be found on other mucosal surfaces if transmitted via sex.
Herpes Simplex Virus 2
8. This non-enveloped dsDNA virus can cause genital warts, which can lead to cervical cancer.
Human Papilloma Virus
9. A nematode (pinworm) that lay eggs around the anus and causes severe itching.
10. A roundworm that can cause dangerous blockages of the small intestine and may need surgical removal.
11. A nematode that can cause cysts in pork and some game animals and can infect humans who eat undercooked, infested meat.
12. This Gram- coccus can cause a common STI and may be difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance. Many patients are asymptomatic, but some experience severe complications, such as bacteremia, endocarditis, arthritis, and meningitis.
13. This Gram+ coccus is a top cause of tooth decay, being found in dental plaque and tartar.
14. This Gram- spirochaete causes syphilis, a disease with multiple stages that can end in blindness, dementia, and death.
15. This Gram- bacterium causes a common STI, can be coccoid or rod-shaped, and lacks a cell wall. It is an intracellular pathogen that invades and infects host cells.
1. List the 5 stages of disease progression. Explain what each stage entails for the patient.
1) Incubation - patient feels well/no signs or symptoms of illness
2) Prodromal - patient experience vague, flu-like signs and symptoms that do not lead to diagnosis
3) Illness - the signs and symptoms are distinctive of the illness
4) Decline - the patient begins to feel better
5) Convalescence/recovery - the patient has recovered (although there may be complications)
2. Name 2 defensive features of either the digestive or genitourinary (aka urogenital) system. State why each feature is helpful in preventing infection.
Digestive system answers include: stomach acid, microbiome, M-cells, mucus/goblet cells, WBC's, Peyer's patches
Urogenital system answers include: mucus, microbiome, acidic environment, urination/flushing
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