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For the Chapter 14 Test

From the earliest days of the Christianity, the Catholic church had been largely opposed to reforms


The Great Schism and the Babylonian Captivity badly damaged the prestige of the Catholic church


Erasmus painted a sympathetic portrait of the Catholic clergy in "In Praise of Folly"


Martin Luther's "Ninety Five Theses" argued that the pope had no power to grant indulgences


When a papal letter ordered Luther's writings to be burned, Luther responded by burning the papal letter


In the early sixteenth century, most parish priests were trained in both theology and medicine


For Luther, sex was a natural, unsinful human act withing a marriage


Ulrich Zwingli was a strong believer in the doctrine of transubstantiation


As Free Christians, Luther believed that the "priesthood of all believers" did not owe any allegiance to secular authority and was not obligated to follow state laws.


Luther believed that a woman's profession should be her home


According to Martin Luther, salvation comes through


Which of the following is NOT identified with corrupt practices in the early sixteenth-century church: pluralism, William Tyndale, Pope Alexander VI, absenteeism

William Tyndale

Which of the following clearly did NOT support Luther: The German peasants, the German nobility, Charles V, Ulrich Zwingli

Charles V

The great Christian humanists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries believed that reform could be achieved through

education and social change

Luther allegedly tacked his "ninety-five theses" to the door in Wittenberg as a response to

the sale of indulgences and papal wealth

The peasants who revolted in 1525 wanted all of the following EXCEPT: the abolition of serfdom, the reform of the clergy, the suppression of Luther's movement, an end to taxes and tithes.

the suppression of Luther's movement

Luther's German translation of the New Testament

democratized religion

The Peasants' Revolt of 1525

resulted in the slaughter of thousands, with Luther urging on the slaughter

Luther believed that the church consisted of

the entire community of Christian believers

Luther and Zwingli disagreed on which of the following issues: the authority of Scripture, indulgences, monasticism, the Eucharist

the Eucharist

The Twelve Articles were

grievances of the Swabian peasants

Work written by Tomas a Kempis the emphasized a simple Christian life and the centrality of the scriptures

The imitation of Christ

Catholic friar who offended Martin Luther with the manner in which he advertised the selling of indulgences

Johann Tetzel

Wife of Martin Luther who alongside her husband created a Protestant model for a companionate marriage

Katherine Von Bora

Series of imperial meetings in 1521 at a bishop's palace int he Rhineland where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V

Diet of Worms

Document written by representatives of the Swabian peasants which expressed their grievances in economic and social matters

Twelve Articles

Pope who approved of increasing the sale of indulgences in order to complete the construction of Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome

Pope Leo X

Humanist from Zurich who stressed religious reforms

Ulrich Zwingli

Notable work that Martin Luther translated into German in 1523

the Bible

The Council of Trent reaffirmed the seven sacraents, the validity of tradition, and transubstantiation


The English Supremacy Act of 1534 declared the king to be the Supreme Head of the Church of England


For the most part, the English Reformation under Henry VIII dealt with theological issues


Mary Tudor, the English queen and daughter of Henry VIII, was interested in the restoration of Catholicism in England


In general, Protestantism tended to strengthen Germany as a political unit


During the reign of Elizabeth, the English church moved in a moderately Catholic direction


In Geneva, Michael Servetus became Calvin's chief collaborator, co-authoring several inportant works


Most Irish people remained Roman Catholic despite English laws to bring Ireland under control of the Church of England


The Ursuline Order of Nuns, founded by Angela Merici, made impressive gains in the education of women


The Peace of Augsburg (1555) represented dramatic gains for the Catholic Reformation in turning back the tide of Protestantism in Germany.


Under the Presbyterian for of church government, the church is governed by

the people

Which of the following did NOT come from the Anabaptist tradition: congregationalists, puritans, quakers, jesuits


The cornerstone of Calvin's theology was his belief in


John Knox and the Reformation movement in Scotland were most influenced by


Which of the following is NOT identified with corrupt practices in the early-sixteenth-century church: pluralism, William Tyndale, Pope Alexander VI, absenteeism

William Tyndale

Overall, Henry VIII's religious reformation in England occurred

mostly for political reasons

The reformation in Germany resulted in

a politically weaker Germany

The Holy Roman Emperor who tried to suppress the Lutheran revolt was

Charles V

By 1555 the Protestant Reformation had spread to all but


The chief center of the Protestant reformers in the sixteenth century was


The Anabaptist appealed to

the intellectuals

Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries largely because

he needed the wealth they would bring

The Scandinavian countries were most influenced by the religious beliefs of

Martin Luther

The marriage of Maximilian of Hapsburg and Mary of Burgundy in 1477 was a decisive event in the early modern history in that

Austria became an international power

The man who wrote "the Institutes of the Christian Religion" and did the most to internationalize Protestantism was

John Calvin

Henry VIII of England's divorce from his wife Catherin was complicated by the fact that Catherine's nephew was

Charles V

The "index of Prohibited Books" was published by

the Sacred Congregation fot eh Holy Office of the pope

Term applied to English parliamentary laws passed early in Elizabeth's reign that required conformity to the Church of England and uniformity of the church worship

Elizabethan Settlement

Founder of the Society of Jesus whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith through humanistic schools and missionary activity

Ignatious Loyala

General name given to several Protestant groups who believed that only adults could make an informed decision about baptism and who therefore refused to have their children baptized


Officially (parliament approved) prayer book of the Church of England, containing the prayers for all services, the forms for administration of the sacraments, and a manual for the ordination of deacons, priests, and bishops

Book of Common Prayer

Series of imperial meetings in 1521 at a bishop's palace int eh Rhineland where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V

Diet of Worms

Larges multi-class rebellion in English history that protested the English Reformation policies of Henry VIII

Pilgrimage of Grace

Henry VIII's second wife and mother of Elizabeth who was executed for allegedly committing adulterous incest

Anne Boleyn

Organization created by Pope Paul III in 1542 to oversee the Roman Inquisition and enforce the "index of of Prohibited Books"

Congregation of the Holy Office of the Inquisition

City where Ulrich Zwingli established a theocracy to enforce his protestant views


Humanist who rejected the Trinity and was burned at the stake by Calvinists

Michael Servetus

Short-lived young king of England who saw the country move in a decidedly Protestant direction during his reign

Edward VI

City in Germany where one group of Anabaptists practiced polygamy and the death penalty for insubordinate wives


Most important pope of the Catholic Reformation who oversaw the creation of the Holy Office

Pope Paul III

Chief Minister for Henry VIII in England who oversaw the dissolution of Catholic monasteries

Thomas Cromwell

Official doctrine of the Church of England during the Reign of Elizabeth the codified the Elizabethan Settlement

Thirty-nine Articles

Series of meetings during the Catholic Reformation of the mid-16th century that established Catholic doctrine for the next four centuries

Council of Trent

Political agreement that allowed German princes to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism as the official faith of their realms

Peace of Augsburg

Hapsburg ruler who inherited the Spanish Empire from his maternal grandparents the the Austrian Hapsburg lands from his paternal grandparents

Charles V

First wife of Henry VIII who had her marriage annulled when she was unable to provide him with a male heir

Catherine of Aragon

Swiss city where Calvinists, led by John Calvin, established their strict religious community


Humanist and former chief minister for Henry VIII who was beheaded for not taking an oath of loyalty to the Church of England

Thomas More


the selling of Church offices


The holding of several benefices, or church offices.


favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs) Leo X and Clement VII both sons of rulers, Pope Paul III


an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church

Sale of indulgences

people paying money to the Church to absolve their sins or sins of their loved ones


Wrote "In Praise of Folly"

Martin Luther

German theologian who led the Reformation, only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion. 95 Theses posted in 1527, Led reformation in Germany

Johann Tetzel

Leader of selling indulgences

95 Theses

Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the chuch door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation

Johann Eck

He defeated Luther in the Leipzig Debate over indulgences in July 1519. He forced Luther to deny authority of popes and councils.

Diet of Worms

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Luther wouldn't recant

Confessions of Augsburg

An attempted compromise statement of religious faith to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE, but rejected by Catholic Princes

Charles V

This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation

Peasants' War

believed their demands conformed to scriptures, not backed by Luther, Strengthened authority of Lay Rulers

Swabian Uprising

Peasants met conplaining of agrasian crises, noble seiges, common lands, unjust death duties. Believed demands conformed to scriptures, cited Luther


Formed by newly Protestant princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re catholicize Germany. Francis I of France allied with the League (despite being catholic)

Hapsburg-Valois War

Conflict from 1494 to 1559 between the ruling families of France (Valois) and Spain, Netherlands, Germany (Hapsburgs)

Peace of Augsburg

Established local authorities responsibility to choose the religion of the area, confusion as princes converted, no room for moderates


A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.

Tragedy at Munster

Protestants and Catholics capture city and execute anabaptist leaders


founded by dutch leader simmons, became descendants of anabaptists


shared beliefs of mennonites, came to america, founded and controlled pennsylvania, new jersey, and delaware

ulrich zwingli

swiss Reformer, influenced by christian humanism, state supervise church, banned music and relics from services, died in civil war

John Calvin

developed calvinism (geneva), wrote "institutes for Christian Religion; writings influenced religious thoughts of Europeans


the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power


French Calvinists who were persecuted


wanted to purify church, pressured elizabeth I for reform

English Reformation

Lollards still existed in regions of England, William Tyndale wrote English bible, became the basis for king James version bible

Henry VIII

Responsible for dissolution of Monasteries. 2nd tudor monarchs, supported catholicism and pope. "Defender of the Faith"

Catherine of Aragon

Henry VIII's wife, couldn't conceive a son, only had one daughter: Mary.

Anne Boleyn

Henry VIII's 2nd wife, after Catherine was executed in 1536 for having an affair

Mary Tudor

Tried to reimpose catholicism, "bloody mary" rescinded reformation legislation of Henry's and Edward's reign


A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).

During the Reformation, Anabaptism drew its membership mostly from the ranks of the


The colloquy of Marburg in 1529

was a debate between Luther and Zwingli that resulted in a formal split withing Protestantism

English puritanism developed during the reign of Elizabeth I:

in reaction to the failure of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement to implement the reforms of the Council of Trent

The response of the catholic church to the Reformation was delayed because

the church did not possess the money needed to confront protestantism

the protestant reformation

tended to strengthen the power of secular rulers

martin luther believed that the problem of personal sin had its solution in

justification by faith

in transforming the catholic church into the church of england, Henry VIII

disbanded monasteries and confiscated their land

The sixteenth-century religious wars in France were largely ended with the

Edict of Nantes

The specific abuse that Luther addressed in his "ninety-five theses" was

the sale of indulgences

The German sociologist Max Weber advanced the thesis that a significant result of the Protestant Reformation was that

Protestantism, particularly Calvinism, fostered capitalism

The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended ended the conflict known as the

Habsburg-Valois Wars

In the fifteenth century, many clerics held more than one benefice, a practice known as


french calvinists were known as


in 1521, Charles V ordered Luther to appeark before the

Diet of Worms

The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre led to

a lengthy civil war

Luther believed that the church consisted of

the entire community of christian believers

Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany

appealed to the political aspiriations of German princes

In 1598, _________ issued the Edict of Nantes

Henry IV

John Knox was influential in the Reformation in


As a result of the Peace of Augsburg, the people of Germany

became either Lutheran or Catholic, depending on the preference of their prince

Luther viewed sex as

an act that could be destructive but was safely contained within marriage

the Protestant Reformation in Germany

conpounded problems that had existed since the Middle Ages

When Charles V abdicted, ___________ inherited the seventeen provinces that made up the Netherlands

Philip II

Martin Luther's first response to the demands made by the Swabian peasants of their lords was

sympathy for the peasants

According to the Calvin, the elect were

those individuals chosen for salvation

the Genevan Consistory

severely regulated the conduct of Genevans

The German Peasants' Revolt of 1525 greatly strengthened the authority of

lay rulers

According to the text, the Calvinist doctrine of predestination led to a

confidence among Calvinists in their own salvation

The dissolution of the English monasteries

resulted from Henry VIII's desire to confiscate their wealth

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, between ____________ people were executed for witchcraft in Europe

40,000 and 60,000

The reformation in England was primarily the result of

the dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII

Luther and Zwingli disagreed on which of the following issues

the Eucharist

The pilgrimage of Grace attested to

popular opposition, in northern England, to Henry VIII's reformation

The catholic REformation, begun before 1517,

sought to stimulate a new spiritual fervor

In religious affiars, Elizabeth I of England followed a policy that

was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes

__________ factors proved decisive in shaping the course of the Reformation in eastern Europe


The overriding goal of the Catholic religious orders established in the sixteenth century was

to uplift the spiritual condition of both clergy and laity

a new religious order for women that emerged in the sixteenth century was the

ursuline order

France supported the Protestant princes of Germany in order to

prevent Charles V from increasing his power

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