152 terms

AP Euro Chapter 14 Review

For the Chapter 14 Test
From the earliest days of the Christianity, the Catholic church had been largely opposed to reforms
The Great Schism and the Babylonian Captivity badly damaged the prestige of the Catholic church
Erasmus painted a sympathetic portrait of the Catholic clergy in "In Praise of Folly"
Martin Luther's "Ninety Five Theses" argued that the pope had no power to grant indulgences
When a papal letter ordered Luther's writings to be burned, Luther responded by burning the papal letter
In the early sixteenth century, most parish priests were trained in both theology and medicine
For Luther, sex was a natural, unsinful human act withing a marriage
Ulrich Zwingli was a strong believer in the doctrine of transubstantiation
As Free Christians, Luther believed that the "priesthood of all believers" did not owe any allegiance to secular authority and was not obligated to follow state laws.
Luther believed that a woman's profession should be her home
According to Martin Luther, salvation comes through
Which of the following is NOT identified with corrupt practices in the early sixteenth-century church: pluralism, William Tyndale, Pope Alexander VI, absenteeism
William Tyndale
Which of the following clearly did NOT support Luther: The German peasants, the German nobility, Charles V, Ulrich Zwingli
Charles V
The great Christian humanists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries believed that reform could be achieved through
education and social change
Luther allegedly tacked his "ninety-five theses" to the door in Wittenberg as a response to
the sale of indulgences and papal wealth
The peasants who revolted in 1525 wanted all of the following EXCEPT: the abolition of serfdom, the reform of the clergy, the suppression of Luther's movement, an end to taxes and tithes.
the suppression of Luther's movement
Luther's German translation of the New Testament
democratized religion
The Peasants' Revolt of 1525
resulted in the slaughter of thousands, with Luther urging on the slaughter
Luther believed that the church consisted of
the entire community of Christian believers
Luther and Zwingli disagreed on which of the following issues: the authority of Scripture, indulgences, monasticism, the Eucharist
the Eucharist
The Twelve Articles were
grievances of the Swabian peasants
Work written by Tomas a Kempis the emphasized a simple Christian life and the centrality of the scriptures
The imitation of Christ
Catholic friar who offended Martin Luther with the manner in which he advertised the selling of indulgences
Johann Tetzel
Wife of Martin Luther who alongside her husband created a Protestant model for a companionate marriage
Katherine Von Bora
Series of imperial meetings in 1521 at a bishop's palace int he Rhineland where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V
Diet of Worms
Document written by representatives of the Swabian peasants which expressed their grievances in economic and social matters
Twelve Articles
Pope who approved of increasing the sale of indulgences in order to complete the construction of Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome
Pope Leo X
Humanist from Zurich who stressed religious reforms
Ulrich Zwingli
Notable work that Martin Luther translated into German in 1523
the Bible
The Council of Trent reaffirmed the seven sacraents, the validity of tradition, and transubstantiation
The English Supremacy Act of 1534 declared the king to be the Supreme Head of the Church of England
For the most part, the English Reformation under Henry VIII dealt with theological issues
Mary Tudor, the English queen and daughter of Henry VIII, was interested in the restoration of Catholicism in England
In general, Protestantism tended to strengthen Germany as a political unit
During the reign of Elizabeth, the English church moved in a moderately Catholic direction
In Geneva, Michael Servetus became Calvin's chief collaborator, co-authoring several inportant works
Most Irish people remained Roman Catholic despite English laws to bring Ireland under control of the Church of England
The Ursuline Order of Nuns, founded by Angela Merici, made impressive gains in the education of women
The Peace of Augsburg (1555) represented dramatic gains for the Catholic Reformation in turning back the tide of Protestantism in Germany.
Under the Presbyterian for of church government, the church is governed by
the people
Which of the following did NOT come from the Anabaptist tradition: congregationalists, puritans, quakers, jesuits
The cornerstone of Calvin's theology was his belief in
John Knox and the Reformation movement in Scotland were most influenced by
Which of the following is NOT identified with corrupt practices in the early-sixteenth-century church: pluralism, William Tyndale, Pope Alexander VI, absenteeism
William Tyndale
Overall, Henry VIII's religious reformation in England occurred
mostly for political reasons
The reformation in Germany resulted in
a politically weaker Germany
The Holy Roman Emperor who tried to suppress the Lutheran revolt was
Charles V
By 1555 the Protestant Reformation had spread to all but
The chief center of the Protestant reformers in the sixteenth century was
The Anabaptist appealed to
the intellectuals
Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries largely because
he needed the wealth they would bring
The Scandinavian countries were most influenced by the religious beliefs of
Martin Luther
The marriage of Maximilian of Hapsburg and Mary of Burgundy in 1477 was a decisive event in the early modern history in that
Austria became an international power
The man who wrote "the Institutes of the Christian Religion" and did the most to internationalize Protestantism was
John Calvin
Henry VIII of England's divorce from his wife Catherin was complicated by the fact that Catherine's nephew was
Charles V
The "index of Prohibited Books" was published by
the Sacred Congregation fot eh Holy Office of the pope
Term applied to English parliamentary laws passed early in Elizabeth's reign that required conformity to the Church of England and uniformity of the church worship
Elizabethan Settlement
Founder of the Society of Jesus whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith through humanistic schools and missionary activity
Ignatious Loyala
General name given to several Protestant groups who believed that only adults could make an informed decision about baptism and who therefore refused to have their children baptized
Officially (parliament approved) prayer book of the Church of England, containing the prayers for all services, the forms for administration of the sacraments, and a manual for the ordination of deacons, priests, and bishops
Book of Common Prayer
Series of imperial meetings in 1521 at a bishop's palace int eh Rhineland where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V
Diet of Worms
Larges multi-class rebellion in English history that protested the English Reformation policies of Henry VIII
Pilgrimage of Grace
Henry VIII's second wife and mother of Elizabeth who was executed for allegedly committing adulterous incest
Anne Boleyn
Organization created by Pope Paul III in 1542 to oversee the Roman Inquisition and enforce the "index of of Prohibited Books"
Congregation of the Holy Office of the Inquisition
City where Ulrich Zwingli established a theocracy to enforce his protestant views
Humanist who rejected the Trinity and was burned at the stake by Calvinists
Michael Servetus
Short-lived young king of England who saw the country move in a decidedly Protestant direction during his reign
Edward VI
City in Germany where one group of Anabaptists practiced polygamy and the death penalty for insubordinate wives
Most important pope of the Catholic Reformation who oversaw the creation of the Holy Office
Pope Paul III
Chief Minister for Henry VIII in England who oversaw the dissolution of Catholic monasteries
Thomas Cromwell
Official doctrine of the Church of England during the Reign of Elizabeth the codified the Elizabethan Settlement
Thirty-nine Articles
Series of meetings during the Catholic Reformation of the mid-16th century that established Catholic doctrine for the next four centuries
Council of Trent
Political agreement that allowed German princes to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism as the official faith of their realms
Peace of Augsburg
Hapsburg ruler who inherited the Spanish Empire from his maternal grandparents the the Austrian Hapsburg lands from his paternal grandparents
Charles V
First wife of Henry VIII who had her marriage annulled when she was unable to provide him with a male heir
Catherine of Aragon
Swiss city where Calvinists, led by John Calvin, established their strict religious community
Humanist and former chief minister for Henry VIII who was beheaded for not taking an oath of loyalty to the Church of England
Thomas More
the selling of Church offices
The holding of several benefices, or church offices.
favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs) Leo X and Clement VII both sons of rulers, Pope Paul III
an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
Sale of indulgences
people paying money to the Church to absolve their sins or sins of their loved ones
Wrote "In Praise of Folly"
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation, only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion. 95 Theses posted in 1527, Led reformation in Germany
Johann Tetzel
Leader of selling indulgences
95 Theses
Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the chuch door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation
Johann Eck
He defeated Luther in the Leipzig Debate over indulgences in July 1519. He forced Luther to deny authority of popes and councils.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Luther wouldn't recant
Confessions of Augsburg
An attempted compromise statement of religious faith to unite Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE, but rejected by Catholic Princes
Charles V
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
Peasants' War
believed their demands conformed to scriptures, not backed by Luther, Strengthened authority of Lay Rulers
Swabian Uprising
Peasants met conplaining of agrasian crises, noble seiges, common lands, unjust death duties. Believed demands conformed to scriptures, cited Luther
Formed by newly Protestant princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re catholicize Germany. Francis I of France allied with the League (despite being catholic)
Hapsburg-Valois War
Conflict from 1494 to 1559 between the ruling families of France (Valois) and Spain, Netherlands, Germany (Hapsburgs)
Peace of Augsburg
Established local authorities responsibility to choose the religion of the area, confusion as princes converted, no room for moderates
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Tragedy at Munster
Protestants and Catholics capture city and execute anabaptist leaders
founded by dutch leader simmons, became descendants of anabaptists
shared beliefs of mennonites, came to america, founded and controlled pennsylvania, new jersey, and delaware
ulrich zwingli
swiss Reformer, influenced by christian humanism, state supervise church, banned music and relics from services, died in civil war
John Calvin
developed calvinism (geneva), wrote "institutes for Christian Religion; writings influenced religious thoughts of Europeans
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
French Calvinists who were persecuted
wanted to purify church, pressured elizabeth I for reform
English Reformation
Lollards still existed in regions of England, William Tyndale wrote English bible, became the basis for king James version bible
Henry VIII
Responsible for dissolution of Monasteries. 2nd tudor monarchs, supported catholicism and pope. "Defender of the Faith"
Catherine of Aragon
Henry VIII's wife, couldn't conceive a son, only had one daughter: Mary.
Anne Boleyn
Henry VIII's 2nd wife, after Catherine was executed in 1536 for having an affair
Mary Tudor
Tried to reimpose catholicism, "bloody mary" rescinded reformation legislation of Henry's and Edward's reign
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).
During the Reformation, Anabaptism drew its membership mostly from the ranks of the
The colloquy of Marburg in 1529
was a debate between Luther and Zwingli that resulted in a formal split withing Protestantism
English puritanism developed during the reign of Elizabeth I:
in reaction to the failure of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement to implement the reforms of the Council of Trent
The response of the catholic church to the Reformation was delayed because
the church did not possess the money needed to confront protestantism
the protestant reformation
tended to strengthen the power of secular rulers
martin luther believed that the problem of personal sin had its solution in
justification by faith
in transforming the catholic church into the church of england, Henry VIII
disbanded monasteries and confiscated their land
The sixteenth-century religious wars in France were largely ended with the
Edict of Nantes
The specific abuse that Luther addressed in his "ninety-five theses" was
the sale of indulgences
The German sociologist Max Weber advanced the thesis that a significant result of the Protestant Reformation was that
Protestantism, particularly Calvinism, fostered capitalism
The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended ended the conflict known as the
Habsburg-Valois Wars
In the fifteenth century, many clerics held more than one benefice, a practice known as
french calvinists were known as
in 1521, Charles V ordered Luther to appeark before the
Diet of Worms
The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre led to
a lengthy civil war
Luther believed that the church consisted of
the entire community of christian believers
Luther's ideas about Roman exploitation of Germany
appealed to the political aspiriations of German princes
In 1598, _________ issued the Edict of Nantes
Henry IV
John Knox was influential in the Reformation in
As a result of the Peace of Augsburg, the people of Germany
became either Lutheran or Catholic, depending on the preference of their prince
Luther viewed sex as
an act that could be destructive but was safely contained within marriage
the Protestant Reformation in Germany
conpounded problems that had existed since the Middle Ages
When Charles V abdicted, ___________ inherited the seventeen provinces that made up the Netherlands
Philip II
Martin Luther's first response to the demands made by the Swabian peasants of their lords was
sympathy for the peasants
According to the Calvin, the elect were
those individuals chosen for salvation
the Genevan Consistory
severely regulated the conduct of Genevans
The German Peasants' Revolt of 1525 greatly strengthened the authority of
lay rulers
According to the text, the Calvinist doctrine of predestination led to a
confidence among Calvinists in their own salvation
The dissolution of the English monasteries
resulted from Henry VIII's desire to confiscate their wealth
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, between ____________ people were executed for witchcraft in Europe
40,000 and 60,000
The reformation in England was primarily the result of
the dynastic and romantic concerns of Henry VIII
Luther and Zwingli disagreed on which of the following issues
the Eucharist
The pilgrimage of Grace attested to
popular opposition, in northern England, to Henry VIII's reformation
The catholic REformation, begun before 1517,
sought to stimulate a new spiritual fervor
In religious affiars, Elizabeth I of England followed a policy that
was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes
__________ factors proved decisive in shaping the course of the Reformation in eastern Europe
The overriding goal of the Catholic religious orders established in the sixteenth century was
to uplift the spiritual condition of both clergy and laity
a new religious order for women that emerged in the sixteenth century was the
ursuline order
France supported the Protestant princes of Germany in order to
prevent Charles V from increasing his power
The Protestant radicals like Anabaptists were
attacked by both Protestants and Catholics
The significance of the German Peasants' War in 1525 was that it
led Luther to call for absolute obedience to the state
The Peace of Augsburg
Gave rulers or members states of the Holy Roman Empire the right to choose Catholicism or Lutheranism as their state religion