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88 terms

Advanced Fundamentals - Estim

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Frequency
what is the number of cycles or pulses per second
Alternating Current
what is continuous and bidirectional flow of charged particles (+ and -)
Interpulse Interval
what time between pulses
Cathode
what is the negative pole
Rise time
what is the time it takes current to go from zero to peak during a phase
Premodulated Current
what is similar to IFC but uses only one channel
Amplitude
what is magnitude of the current or voltage
Frequency Modulation
what is usually referred to a sweep
Anode
what is the positive pole
Pulse Duration
what is the time from the beginning of the first phase to the end of the last phase of the pulse
Polarity
what is property of having two oppositely charged conductors
Pulsed Current
what is electrical current delivered discontinuously
Impedance
what is total frequency-dependent opposition to the current flow
Direct Current
what is used for inotophoresis and stimulating denervated muscles to contract
Interferential Current
what is a waveform produced by the interference of two medium frequency sinusoidal AC's
Wavelength
what is the duration of one cycle
Duty Cycle
what is the ratio of on time to total cycle time
Ramp up
what is the time it takes current to go from zero to maximum amplitude for any one on time
Amplitude Modulation
what is usually referred to as scan
Ohm's Law
what is the relationship between voltage (V), electrical current (I) and resistance (R)
1:2
If a pulse were on for 20 seconds and off for 20 seconds, this would be a what duty cycle
1:1
If a pulse were on for 20 seconds and off for 20 seconds, this would be a what of:off time
5000
with IFC and the frequencies of 5000Hz and 6000Hz what would be the carrier frequency
1000
with IFC and the frequencies of 5000Hz and 6000Hz what would be the carrier frequency
Charge
what has an abreviation of (Q)
Charge
what is it called when matter has a positive charge, a negative charge, or is electrically neutral
Charge
what is measured in Coulombs (C)
Polarity
what frees electrons flow from an area of excess electrons to an area deficient in electrons
Electrical Current
what is measured in Amperes (A) and has an abreviation of (I)
Electrical Current
what is the flow or movement of charged particles through a conductor following an applied electrical field
Voltage
what has an abreviation of (V)
Voltage
what is electrical force moving charged particles through a conductor between two regions or points
Voltage
what may also be called potential difference
Resistance
what has an abreviation of (R)
Resistance
what is the property of the conductor that resists the flow of charged particles
Resistance
what is measured in Ohms
Impedance
what has an abreviation of Z
Impedance
what is a more accurate descriptor of the relationship between voltage and current than resistance
Ohm's Law
what is (V= I x R)
Direct Current
what does DC stand for
Direct Current
what is continuous and unidirectional flow of charged particles (either + or -)
Direct Current
what is occansionally used with wound healing
Alternating Current
what does AC stand for
Premodulated Current
what has waves that interfere in the machine and are then delivered through 2 electrodes, 1 channel
Premodulated Current
what doesn't have the same benefits as interferential current
Russian Protocol
what is used to increase muscle force
Frequency
what is another name for Rate
Pulse Duration/Phase Duration
what is another name for Width
Phase Duration
what is the duration of one phase of the pulse
Comfort of stimulation
what does Pulse Duration/Phase Duration control
Less skin impedence
what does Pulse Duration/Phase Duration control
Less chemical changes under the electrode
what does Pulse Duration/Phase Duration control
Better discrimination
what does Pulse Duration/Phase Duration control
Interphase interval
what is the time between phases of a pulse
Decay Time
what is the time it takes from peak to decrease to zero during a phase
Ramp down
what is the time it takes current to go from maximum to zero amplitude for any one on time
Ramp up/Ramp down
what allows the patient to acclimate to the stimulation
Subsensory to sensory to motor effects
what is the transition of acclimation to the sensory
Symmetrical biphasic pulsed
what type of estim is used for muscle strengthening or muscle reeducation or muscle spasm or chronic edema
TENS (monophasic/biphasic)
what type of estim is used in conventional or accupuncture
AC
what type of estim is IFC or premod
HVPC
what type of estim is used for tissue healing or acute edem
Conventional
what type of TENS is used for pain control via gate theory of pain
Accupuncture
what type of TENS is used for pain control via endogenous opiate release
DC monophasic
what type of TENS is used for iontophoresis or denervated muscle
Burst Mode
what is a series of pulses delivered in an "envelope" as singe pulse
Resting potential
what is the difference inelectrical potential across the cell membrane when information is not being transmitted
Depolarize
what membrane potential becomes less negative than the resting potential
Repolarize
what membrane potential returns to more negative state & resting potential is restored
opening of Na channels pulls Na in to the cell by the negative charge inside and because of the larger concentration of Na outside the cell
what happens during the Depolarization of an action potential
Channels close and K channels open; K is pushed out of the cell because of the large concentration of K inside of the cell and the positive charge inside the cell
what happens during the Repolarization of an action potential
Absolute refractory period
what is it when the membrane is depolarized, and it is not possible to create another AP
Relative refractory period
what is it when after depolarization occurs, a short hyperpolarization period occurs
Relative refractory period
what is a stronger than normal AP that would be required to produce another AP
AP propagation/conduction
what is AP triggered in adjacent nerves and along the neuron
Afferent
what type of nerve is Sensory nerves
Efferent
what type of nerve is Motor nerves
Afferent
what nerves submit sensory info to the brain
Efferent
what nerves submit motot info to the muscles
Nerve diameter and myelination
what does propagation speed depend on
Strength-Duration Curve
what is the minimum amount of electrical current required to depolarize the nerve and produce and AP in a specific type of nerve
Sensory nerves
what type of nerves carry lower current amplitude and shorter pulse duration depolarize
Motor nerves
what type of nerves carry higher amplitude and longer pulses are required to depolarize
Pain-transmitting C fibers
what type of nerves carry high amplitude and longer pulses are required to depolarize
Accommodation
what is decreased response to same amplitude of nerve stimulation
Motor nerves
innervated muscles contract via depolarization of what
Muscle cell membrane
denervated muscles contract via depolarization of what
Ionic effects
what is DC monophasic waveforms, not biphasic waveforms