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233 terms

World History 201

STUDY
PLAY
Evidence
What historians use in an attempt to reconstruct the past, often only bits or fragments remain. Evidence is divided into two categories: Artifacts and Texts
Artifactual
Any man-made material object that survives from the past. 1) monuments or buildings 2) art depicting past events, customs, gods, etc. 3) objects such as tools weapons or clothing
Textual
These are the most important types of evidence, can be anything from a complete book, to an inscription on a building, to writing on a coin
Primary Documents
The surviving records of eyewitnesses in the original languages.
Limitations of History
We cannot directly observe any past events beyond living memory. We therefore must rely of small fragments of information (the bulk having been lost) which may not tell the whole story.
Reductionism
The problem of selection and simplification of evidence. There is often too much information to handle and the student of history must decide what is of the most importance. Complex phenomenon into simple explanations.
Events
A historical event is a discreet past occurrence which can be defined in time and space. Such as a battle, death of a king, or writing of a book.
Processes
Represents patterns of change over long periods of time. Such as the spread of Christianity.
Historic
Refers to societies which possess writing.
Prehistoric
Refers to societies before writing
Ancient
before 500 BC
Classical
500 BC to 500 AD
Medieval
500 AD to 1500 AD
Temple
centers of creating, preserving and transmitting sacred symbols. Meeting place. Acted as a University/place to learn astronomy and sciences.
Guardian Figures
angels surround the throne of God. They fulfill roles in heaven.
Astronomy/Calendar and Temples
Sacred time. Cyclical time, temporal center of cosmos, calendar of festivals, east and rising of the sun, astronomical art in the temple.
Center
geographical center of the earth. Place where heaven and earth meet.
Circumbulation
To walk around something. Ritual act, center attention on sacred things.
Cosmic Mountain
ziggurat. mountain where God dwells: Eden, Sinai, Zion/Jerusalem
Site of Creation
foundations of the earth at the temple. Took 7 years to build the temple and seven days to create the earth
Sacred Waters
Abyss=waters of chaos=primordial matter. Waters of life flow from the temple. 4 rivers of Eden: Gihon
Tree of Life
Symbol across many cultures. Produces food without having to kill the source.
Celestial Temple
earthly temple is designed and founded by God. Parallels heavenly temple.
Order vs Chaos
Order -Way things operate, designed by God. Chaos - When that order breaks down.
Microcosm
furniture in temple represents parts of cosmos. Earth=stones Air=incense Fire=light Water=brazen sea. "small world" = symbolic models of the cosmos/ creation
Purification
ritual washings to enter temple. Parallels baptism and morality.
Rigveda
Indian/ hindu text like psalms. We read a creation myth from there. Primordial text.
Myth
a sacred story that deals with relation of humans and gods, describes foundation of the community and establishes a purpose of community.
Cosmogony
story of the creation of the cosmos, the universe. Creation narratives .
Cosmology
a description of the cosmos
Primordial Water
chaotic, formless, unorganized matter "the deep", sometimes associated with sea water. It is water with NO life. Fifth element (other four are fire, air, water, and earth)
"Unknown god"
the god who created all other gods.
Creation by breath/wind/spirit
God breathes on the dark formless "deep" and creation occurs. Infusion of divine breath/spirit to make alive
Division into opposites
light/dark, above/below, water/land- opposition in all things. Division of primordial matter into opposite pairs
Theomachy
Marduk and the primordial combat myth. Original war of the gods at foundation of creation; struggle between good and evil for control
Temple as site of creation
temple marks site of creation. The Garden of Eden was a temple./ reenact creation story
Social Organization
A group of people interacting together. This was taking place as people began to work as a civilization, rather than working as hunters/gatherers. fundamental need - obtain food. Beyond family, you organize yourself based on food you're looking for.
Migratory
those forced to periodically move in order to obtain food
Hunter Gatherer
food collectors, migrate, seasonal patterns
Nomads
specialized in herding domesticated animals, also migrated seasonally
Sedentary
forced to live in one place in order to obtain food
Agriculturists
farming domesticated plants
Urban
obtain food by NOT directly farm themselves, but by trading or taxing farmers
Neolithic
transformation of human groups from food collectors to food producers, 1st in near east in 8th mill. BC
Domestication (plants and animals)
began systematically planting, protecting, and harvesting plants, hybridization and selective breeding, same idea with animals
Origins of Civilization
Based on the tools they used.
Subsistence
Farming to provide only enough food for your needs (no surplus). If any famine, you die
Agricultural surplus
Waste, population growth, storage, exchange (trade)
Economic specialization
Increased efficiency technological innovation, exchange. Created classes, rich vs. poor
Temple City
The city is built around a temple, that is the defining element of the layout.
Temple and Palace
Priests and Kings
Hierocentric = Centered on the Holy
Naocentric = Centered on the Temple
Social Stratification
Priests and warriors denominated society as a whole since they used much of the agricultural surplus to ask the gods to continue to provide fertility to farmers and the warriors protected the communities. Development of classes based on spirituality/economics/race/politics. RICH and POOR
Six Primary civilizations
fertile river valleys, original, didn't borrow ideas from other civilizations. Identify on a map...Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley, Yellow River, Peru, Mesoamerica.
Shaman/Shamanism
Witch doctor, specialist in communicating with and seeing the world of spirits, divines the future
Carmel Cave
(Israel) found tools, animal bones, paintings, Gradation of Holiness. Symbolize use of caves with stone age people
Lascaux Cave
(France) one of the oldest caves known. animals/hunting. communal life in outer chambers of cave, more sacred activities as you move to the innermost chamber
Relation of caves, temples and tombs
Caves were the first temple, passage to the underworld
Paleolithic hunting ritual as sacrifice
hunt=kill=sacrifice (to make sacred) Humans must kill to eat, make killing of animal sacred to cope with it
Temple of the Leopards
very early hunting temple in southern Israel.diagrams of leopard to attract spirit of leopard.
Tombs and Ancestor cult (Abraham at Hebron)
ancestors go to live with gods, tombs act as a place where families can regather
burial mounds (Rujm al-Hiri)
Central mound, tomb, mark sacred space
upright/raised stone (maṣṣēbāh)
pillar or raised stone, signifying worship. Stones may represent gods
aligned stones (Gezer)
upright placed stones - not natural, outlined with little rocks. Holy of Holies there, place of worship. ex) Joshua crossed the river and set up the stones there.
stone circles (Gil-gal)
After the conquest of Canaan, Gil-gal remained a holy place where Samuel judged Israel (I Sam 7:16) and Saul was crowned king.
Dolmens
also known as a portal tomb or portal grave and is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of three or more upright stones supporting a large flat horizontal capstone (table).
memorial
stones that commemorate holy experiences, theophanies for example
theophany
refers to the appearance of a deity to a human, or to a divine disclosure.It refers to the manifestation of God to man; the sensible sign by which the presence of God is revealed. Only a small number of theophanies are found in the Hebrew Bible, also known as the Old Testament
Hitite
Indo-European herders who migrated form central Eurasia to Anatolia (Turkey) in 2000 BC. Empire collapsed in 1200 BC from attacks-Hittite were the most powerful state in west Asia ...
-their strength came from rich minerals such as silver, lead, copper ...
-they marked their resources by controlling trade routes ...
-their iron workings gave them military advantage ...
-they used cuneiform as well as hieroglyphic writing ...
-they embraced west Asia's religion/myth and Babylon's laws ...
-an important contribution was exchanging elements from old cultures through trade
Phoenician
red men" (1500-330 BC) - descendants of original Canaanites, lived in Lebanon
-they were international traders: glass, metal, dye, fabrics, cedar
-many of their texts were destroyed, and religious beliefs cannot be determined in detail
-Egyptian influence visible in Phoenician art
-Phoenicia served as a major transmitter of Afrocriatre culture throughout eastern Mediterranean, especially Greece. (introduced math, astronomy, alphabet, arts, religion)
Alphabet
Phoenician's invented 1st system of writing, consisting of 22 signs, each depicting a consonantal sound.
-it was easy, accepted in west Asia, used in trade ...
-Greeks added vowels that are now used in Europe
Judah
Formed from 2 southern tribes of Israel
-retained independence from Assyrian threat until 586 BC when Neo-Babylonian Chaldeans destroyed temple and occupied Jerusalem and transported most skilled Jews to Babylon.
-after liberation of Cyrus the Great in 538 BC, captives returned to Judah to rebuild their temple.
-next 2 centuries, lived under Persian rule, then subject to Syria after conquest of Alexander the Great.
-then small independence under Maccabees (167-63 BC)
-homeland incorporated into Roman empire
Israel
Hebrews filtered into Canaan and in 1025 BC the independent tribes formed the Kingdom of Israel. ...
-two powerful kings: David and Solomon ...
-10 tribes secede in 9th century and regrouped as independent kingdom of Israel
Polytheist
Worship of many gods
Canaanite
Oldest group of people-Pre OT
Israelite
Old testament Jews about 1200 BCE - 70 CE
Jewish
Rabbinic Judaism
Patriarchal
Time of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob
Canaan
inland people, grow herds and run vineyards
Phoenicia
maritime culture. Known for starting the alphabet.
Metalwork
Canaanites were the metal workers
Maritime
Sea culture
Ugarit
biggest Canaanite library, major source for understanding Canaanite culture, city in N. Syria that was destroyed by the Sea Peoples in 1180 BC. Its destruction allowed for its preservation.
Jericho (Tower)
BIG ancient Canaanite stone tower uncovered in an oasis by the Jordan River. Could have been a worship site. Earliest temple we have in land of Israel?
En Gedi (Temple)
Near Dead sea with a small spring overlooking dead sea, Spring was covered in a grove and the temple was set a little higher on Mountain.
Gezer (Standing Stones)
Halfway between Jerusalem and the coast of the Mediterranean sight of a polytheist temple.
Tel Qasile (Philistine Temple)
Best preserved temple of the time had two central pillars to hold up roof as in the Samson story.
Middle Bronze Age
2000-1600 BC
Execration Text
sculpture that is written on, then smashed; used as a way to curse the people whose names are written on the pot/sculpture
Melchizedek
"My King is Righteous", King of Jerusalem, priest of El Elyon (God Most High)
Abraham
Nomad paid "bounty" (tithe) from raids to Melchizedek
Melchizedek's Temple?
probably would have had a temple but no remains have been discovered/ assumed temple because if you have a priest, you have a temple
Arad
Temple, 1800 BC (Bronze age) Structurally like Solomon's, could be similar to Melchizedek's as well.
Psalm 110
Psalm of David- Follow God and you will triumph
Hebrews 7
A "forever" priest, king of peace. We learn that Abraham gave 1/10 of everything he had, which made him wealthy and great.
DSS 11Q13 Melchizedek
Melchizedek will set them free on day of Atonement
Nile
-source: Central Africa ...
-4000 miles long River ...
-provided mineral/nutrient Egyptians exploited to make arable land ...
Lower Egypt delta of rich marshy plains
-Annual flooding carried away salt and left rich alluvium, world's riches agriculture! ...
-Unified Egypt ...
-Fostered communication and trade
Theocracy
Ruled by the gods
Pharaoh
autocratic, political and religious control
-High priest, planned and directed economy
-sole owners of land
-state monopoly over trade
-rule by the High Priest or King in claims of ruling by God
Pyramids
- Housed Royal Mummies
-First was Zoser's step pyramid 2650 B.C.
-The modified "true pyramid" appeared during 4th dynasty
-largest located at Giza
-Amazing engineering feat, high cost and high labor
-Reminder that Pharaohs still played central role, even after death
New Kingdom
-1552-1069 B.C.-Theban Brothers, Kamose and Ahmose, expelled Hyksos ...
-Militaristic Pharaohs abandoned Egypt's isolation policy ...
-1490 BC forged great empire into Sedan &West Africa
Akhenaten
Monotheistic religious reformer (1367-1350 BCE
Amarna
Akhenaten moves capital here
Ramses II
Greatest of all the pharaohs (or so he thought). Greatest builder of ancient Egypt, leader during exodus(1290-1223 BCE
Amon-Re
main god, Sun god. Sometimes called Amon, sometimes called Re
Pyramid texts
Earliest religious texts- on walls of tombs
Hyksos
Foreign rulers, brought new technologies. Came in during the Second intermediate period of Egypt. Controlled lower Egypt. Eventually expelled.
Chariot Warfare
Brought from Syria-took 2 people to control but Kings are depicted as riding alone.
Hatshepsut
Female pharaoh, ruled for 22 years, 18th dynasty, was co-regent with her step-son, during her reign their was great stability and peace, took on the image of man even wearing the fake beard that most pharaohs wore
Thutmosis III
Great conqueror of Canaan and Syria, Hated step mother Hatshepsut
Book of the dead
Taught that would would survive after death- inside tomb
Four intellectual revolutions
Writing (Egypt and Mesopotamia), alphabet (cananites/phoenicians), printing (china/germany)and computer (usa). Made spreading of ideas easier with each advancement.
Sacred Way
synonymous with "Way of the Lord". The pathway that leads to sacred places.
• temenos wall
A sacred enclosure wall that marks sacred spaces. It separates the sacred and profane space. esp. Karnak in Egypt
Boundary Markers
Sacred spaces are marked by pillars, stones, or obelisks.
Sacred Water
Sacred water includes waters of creation (referred to as "the deep"), water of life, and waters of purification.
Gateway
Marks a transition to a sacred space.
Courtyard
synonymous with "the world". It is a place of sacrifice.
Altar
There are different types of altars and sacrifices in different parts of the temple complex. Blood sacrifices would take place on an altar in the outer portion of the temple complex (blood is messy).
columned hall
Also known as a hypostyle hall. The original columns were made of wood. Thus, the columns represented trees, marking the "garden of gods".
purification
in order to proceed through degrees of holiness you need to become more and more pure. ex) Sacred Lake.
sacred robes
transition
Holy of Holies
"Most Holy Place"
-Perfect cube of 10 cubits ...
-Blue/Purple/Scarlet veil separated from Holy Place
-Fulfilled cultic role of images ...
-Easily transported ...
-Occasionally carried into battle ...
-Contained sacred relics (Tablet of Law, Manna, Aaron's rod)
presentation to the gods "presentation scene"
This is where a king is pictured in front of the Gods, gaining power and divine right to govern the people. This is usually carved into stone.
embracing the gods
God and King embrace each other.
procession
Occurs on the holy days. The image is removed from the Holy of Holies and placed in a miniature temple box. This box is then put on a miniature bark and carried by the priests. The masses gather to view the procession.
buildings
how we know about the past, if we want to learn about Canaanite religion, we can examine these
Tombs
examine to know about Canaanite religion
Art
examine to know about Canaanite Reilgion
Texts
examine to know about Canaanite religio
fertility cult
religion, rituals, and prayers to worship fertility goddess to be able to reproduce (kids, crops, animals, etc.) water=key ingredient
syncretism
equating Gods w/ different societies, different names for exsentially the same God; accept other Gods & have power in own domain
El
The Hebrew word referring to God. (i.e. Beth-el = House of God) "Head god" of the Canaanites (can relate to Cronus in Greek mythology)
Baal
Canaanite God; Lord. Son of El, but the one the Canaanites worship the most. He's the one who runs things.
Asherah
Canaanite Goddess; fertility goddess-crops, livestock; queen of heaven. Also associated with "grove" and/or "trees" (to represent her).
human sacrifice
key part of worship. "passing children through fire." Abraham offering Isaac
Amarna Tablets
Dipomatic letters from Egyptian vassals to the king of Egypt. Written in Akkadian. c. 1360-1340 BCE
Exodus
Around 1250 or 1200 BCE. It took around 12 generations to settle in Jerusalem starting with initial departure from Egypt.
Ramses II
Pharaoh of the Exodus.
Merneptah
Egyptian king who claimed he killed of Israel. The Merneptah Stele is a stone that first mentions the people of Israel. Name of people shown by man and woman, strokes mean many people. No land mentioned because Israelites were wandering in the wilderness
Jebusites
Canaanite inhabitants of Jerusalem before it was conquered by King David around 1,000 BCE
Adoni-Zedek
"My Lord is righteous" Amorite King of Jerusalem, defeated and killed by Joshua at the battle of Gibeon.
Joshua
one of the spies for Israel; "assistant" to Moses; after the death of Moses he led the Israelite tribes in the conquest of Canaan
Judges
warriors, administrators, prophets, judges; temporary as the times required
United Monarchy
Israel is major power in Syria/Canaan; economic trade power under Solomon; dynastic marriages lead to cultic corruption
• Divided Monarchy
Judah (south) vs. Israel (north); weak political/military power; dynastic succession (N is fragmented by plots, murders, coups, S is House of David); social and economic (N is richer, larger, more powerful, more important internationally, and social distinctions increase between rich and poor); religion (N has temples at Bethel and Dan and has bull idols, S has Temple at Jerusalem and other cultic sites) major problem with syncretism with Baalism
Kingship
permanent and hereditary; prophetic designation; popular acclamation; dynastic descent; the evils of kingship
Trade
Saul (united tribes), David (expanded empire/war), and Solomon (trading)...how you become rich. how ideas and information are spread.
Samaria
fall of Samaria (721 BC); vassal to the Assyrians, conquered by Assyrians; Samaritans as survivors; Judea conquered 703-701; Jerusalem is spared and pays tribute/becomes vasal. Capital of Northern Kingdom Israel.
Judah
Kingdom of Judah (701-586); 1st age of vassalage (Assyrian 701-608; Egyptian 608-604; Babylonian 605-586); Judeans have Davidic kings, but as vassals (have to pay tribute to over-lord) Southern Kingdom with its capital in Jerusalem.
Akedah
"binding"Story of Abraham sacrificing Isaac is "akedah" of Isaac
Bound like feet of lamb
Tabernacle
purpose = sanctuary for God to dwell with people
"dwelling place", "mishkah" ...
-House of Yahweh ...
-Ritual order for worship & purity established through Tabernacle ...
-Moveable tent shrine ...
-3 Zones = Holy of Holies, Holy Place, Outer Court ...
-Gradations in Sanctity as you moved through temple
Tell Tayinat
Closest surviving Canaanite temple, parallels Solomon's temple found in Northern Syria
Arad
Israelite temple not mentioned in the Bible, faces East, there were 3 zones: Courtyard, Holy Place and Holy of Holies. One of the 4 Israelite temples not mentioned in the Bible discovered by archaeologists.
Hezekiah
(715 - 687) centralized worship and revitalized the temple, purged temple of apostasy, destroyed all other pagans pillars, temples, etc. King of Judah who sought to shake off Assyrian domination and reunify all of Israel (Northern and south) through centralizing worship at a revitalized temple in Jerusalem.
Josiah
(640 - 609) centralized worship again after Hezekiah's pagan son Manasseh, purged the temples of cultic pillars, statues, and child sacrifice. Instituted religious reform that finally centralized worship in Jerusalem
Destruction of the Temple
612 B.C. Babylon took over and sacked and burned the Temple due to Zedekiah's revolt
David's preparation
Though temple was dedicated in Solomon's era, David had the initial idea. In part of this preparation, he moves the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem and also hold a census (though the Lord told him not to) to tax the people. He wanted to build the temple at the site when the angel appeared to him. The Lord doesn't allow him to build the temple due to the fact that he was a "war-man" (He had stained blood on his hands).
Levites
When land was divided and given as heritage to 12 tribes, Levites were only given certain cities as opposed to vast amount of land. Their responsibility was solely towards the temple which was how they would make money.They would have work shifts - working 2 weeks- 1 month at a time). All descendants of Levi are known as Levites but only the descendants of Aaron were to be the priests.
plan tabnît
Plans for temple (in imitation of celestial temple) was given to David in a vision which he passed on to Solomon. (Chronicles)
Solomon at Gibeon
Solomon worshipped at Gibeon where he received vision where he was granted any gift, chose correctly--wisdom.
Hiram of Tyre
Phoenician King of modern-day Lebanon. Phoenicians were expert craftsmen and had all the best woods and supplies for building. King Solomon paid him for all of the best products, and all the best workers to come and build his temple. (Tyre and Sidon = 2 biggest Phoenician cities)
Cloud Theophany
God's sign of acceptance of the temple. = divine manifestation) ie. wind, cloud, flashing light
David
(1000 - 962 BC) conquers Jerusalem and neighboring states, sent out a census, man of war, purchased the land where the temple was to be built
Warren's Shaft
built to access Gihon spring in Jerusalem, most likely Joab sneaks into it and takes Jerusalem via crawling
Royal tombs
thought to be where David and other kings are buried
Solomon
wants us to know everything. (961 - 922) built temple, 700 wives and 300 concubines, wives slowly convinced him to worship other Gods.
Jeroboam
Refused to accept the rule of Solomon's son Rehoboam after Solomon's death. Created new temple centers staffed by his own priests. Placed golden calves.
Shishak
king of Egypt, invaded. Sacks Jerusalem in 917 and took the treasures from the Temple
Elijah
Confronted the idolatrous/syncretous worship in the story of his contest with the priests of Baal to prove the superiority of the God of Israel. deals specifically with Phoenicians (Ahab married Jezebel of Tyre who brought with her the religion of Baal)
Hezekiah
(715 - 687) tried to stop pagan worship
Hezekiah's Tunnel
water supply for the city.
Hezekiah's Wall
Wall built in order to protect Jerusalem city from the Assyrians. Seen as a sign of rebellion/preparation to rebel.
Manasseh
(687 - 642) longest reign, reverses Hezekiah's reforms, paganism, vassal of Assyria. Son of Hezekia. The most wicked king of Judah
Josiah
(640 - 609) destroys idolatry and discovers the Book of the Law
Book of the Law
Maybe Deutoronamy? Given to Josiah where he realized the apostasy Israel had fallen into. He repents and starts to reform the law. Brass plates linked to this??? They know realize the importance of scripture: they start Passovers and clean out temple. This reform was key Lehi's coming about.
Mulek
aka Malchaiah (2 Kings 22-23). Son of King Zedekiah. Escapes to America.
Fall of Jerusalem
fall
after an 18 month siege of Zedekiah with Nebuchadnezzar's army.
Lachish Letters
(see Bb reading) S Israel . are a group of letters written in carbon ink in Ancient Hebrew on clay ostraca. The individual ostracon probably come from the same broken clay pot and were most likely written in a short period of time. They were written to Joash, possibly the commanding officer at Lachish (modern Tell ed-Duweir), from Hoshaiah, a military officer stationed in a city close to Lachish (possibly Mareshah). In the letters, Hoshaiah defends himself to Joash regarding a letter he either was or was not supposed to have read. The letters also contain informational reports and requests from Hoshaiah to his superior. The letters were probably written shortly before Lachish fell to the Babylonian army in 588/6 BC during the last years of Jeremiah and during the reign Zedekiah, king of Judah
Assyrians
NE Mesopotamia, Upper Tigris Valley, Semitic People, Cultural & Linguistic ties to Babylonia, Old and Middle Period, Pre-2000 BC
Semitic
Languages related to Hebrew, Arabic, etc. Derived from "Shem." (assyrian, moabite etc.)
Assyrian militarism and imperialism
Military was very advanced for its day; developed superior technology as a result of being raided by outsiders or many years. Had Professional Heavy Infantry, Mounted Archers, and Cavalry. Cavalry had no stirrups or saddles. Imperial Rule defined as Tyranny with High Culture; Adapted Mesopotamian Culture
Assyrian reliefs (carved panels) .
Very Detailed; Are the best documentation of many historical events, often portrayed military events
Library of Ashurbanipal
Was destroyed by the Medes. Records were written in cuneiform on clay tablets. Burning of Library preserved many tablets. 20-30,000 tablets were discovered, 5000 have been translated.
Aššur (Ashur)
setting down bow=peace sign. Raising bow=war sign; god of war
Cuneiform
type of writing (script) that used a variety of dashes, different languages could be written using this type of writing. originates with Sumerians. widely used in Mesopotamia and Syria
Vassal
separate city that paid tribute to the Assyrians, a local "dummy" king was usually put in charge
Deportation
when vassals would rebel the Assyrians would crush them, declare them a "province," Assyrian governor was put in command, and they would move Assyrians into their land
Babylon
It was Babylon's conquest of Judah that brought about the notation of Babylon also signifying wickedness, bad things of the world, etc
Nebuchadnezzar II
Ruled from 605-562, conducted his campaign successfully against Egypt and Palestine from 605-586. Defeated Judah after its Rebellion in 587. He is also considered the Greatest Builder of Babylon (Ishtar Gate, Double Walls, two temples).
city-state
each city was a separate kingdom, Mesopotamia was made up of a confederation of city-states; each city picked one main God
polytheism
many gods, paganism, each god ruled a different aspect of nature or society, you worshipped the god who controlled the element you sought
Taking the Hand of Baal
Gesture used in ceremonies. The king would gather everyone and have them spectate him grasping hands with a statue or image of their god, Baal. Signifies divine kingship and Baal's approval for that king to govern the people.
Gudea of Lagash
great temple builder
Hammurabi
Babylonian king.
Hammurabi's Law Code
first law code we have record from.
Ziggurat
terrace step pyramids with receding levels that had platforms. Used as temples by Mesopotamians/Assyrians. Whole complex, including temple
Siege of Lachish {702} (reliefs)
guards one of the valleys that goes up to Jerusalem. Assyrians came down and took over Lachish. They can no longer see the fires, so they know that the other cities were conquered. Structure of the gate.
Necho
Kills king Josiah. Pharoah
Zedekiah
Installed as vassal king. Sees his children killed in front of him. He lost his eye-sight.
Area G
(Silwan) - excavation site on S ridge of Jerusalem; find wall for King David's palace, house of seals. One of them contained the name Baruk, which was a contemporary to
Bullae (seals), Baruch
Seal of Baruch, the scribe of Jeremiah. Stamps or seals on papyrus scrolls. Hebrew inscriptions. Found in Area G
Tombs
Israelite tombs about the time of Jeremiah. Holes cut into the side of the mountain. Tomb of the Pharaoh's daughter. Ossuary - box for bones.
Refugees (Egypt and Arabia)
Jews scattered post-Babylon (Lehi and his family went into Arabia) (Jeremiah and Ezekiel went into Egypt esp. Elephantine Island)
Ezekiel
prophet. ignored. Ends up dead. describes apostasy at temple and foretells restoration of ideal temple.
Jeremiah
*most important to our discussion. prophet. ignored. Flees to Egypt. describes last days of Jerusalem, Babylonian siege, religious strife
Iran
Big ethnic group of which Persians are a sub class (Israelite and Jew)
Indo-European
Come from region of current southern Russia. Tribal Clans aided in downfall of Assyrians.
mounted (horse) archery
Invention of Saddle and stirrups allowed effective use of cavalry which allowed them to outmaneuver foot soldiers.
Medes
vassals of the Assyrian Empire; allied with Neo-Babylonians conquered Assyrians
Cyrus
Great War king of Persian conquered greatest part of empire died before conquering Egypt. Is compared to Alexander the Great
Darius
made Zoroastrianism the official religion of the state. Also was buried in a tomb, which was contradictory to the "Tower of Silence" doctrine. Son of Cyrus.
Zoroastrianism a
religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra, in Avestan) and was formerly among the world's largest religions. In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil originates from Him. Thus, in Zoroastrianism good and evil have distinct sources, with evil (druj) trying to destroy the creation of Mazda (asha), and good trying to sustain it.
Zarathushtra
an Iranian (Persian) prophet and philosopher and the founder of Zoroastrianism.The spelling "Zoroaster" is a Greek derivation from the Avestan. Zarathushtra is a modern rendering of the Avestan pronunciation, though Zarathustrais more commonly used
Magi
holy men, officiators in zoroastrianism. possible that '3 wisemen' at Christ's birth were zoroastrian. priestly class of zorastrianism
Ahura Mazda
created the world, and was the only worshipped
Dualism
Belief in one all power full god and devil who fights against that god.
Towers of Silence
Fearing that a dead corpse would infect water, air, earth, or fire, the Zoroastrians built towers where they could expose the corpses to vultures that would eat the bodies.
Fire Altar/Temple
Zarathustra made a fire, and it keeps going. Libations = drink offerings. Ritual way to worship the god.
Avesta
Holy Scripture, named after the god Avesta
Persepolis
the Persian city. One of the capital of the Persians.
pairidaeza (paradise)
the garden paradise. Indo-European roots; shows how they're alike. Persian language has the same roots as our modern-day English
Immortals
the army of the Persians. Persian emperor's personal guard. Always 10,000 guardmen. If one of them died, they were immediately replaced.
Guardian cherubs
huge statue of bull/man/eagle/thing near the city complex.
Ezra
Jews in Babylon that returned to Jerusalem. governmental officiators.
Nehemiah
Jews in Babylon that returned to Jerusalem. governmental officiators
Cyrus
Persian king
Josephus
Hellenized Jewish Priest and Historian, writes about the Jews and re-tells the Bible. Jew/Roman historian. Wrote Antiquities
Cyrus Cylinder
archaeological find that tells how Cyrus sent the Jews back to Jerusalem
Yehud
ancient root for Judah. found on Cyrus Cylinder
Rebuilding Temple
group of Jews petitioned with Cyrus to rebuild their Jerusalem temple.
Elephantine Papyri
letter from southern Egypt (leftover Jews) which speaks of the Jews returning to Jerusalem to build the temple.
Isaiah's prophecy of Cyrus
In book of Isaiah. calls Cyrus a messiah