Any transgression of socially established norms
Minor violations of social norms
Violations of laws enacted by society
Way people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along
Social cohesion based on sameness
Social cohesion based on difference and interdependence
Set of social norms by which a society and its members abide
Making offenders suffer and thus defining boundaries of acceptable behavior
Examining special circumstances of offenders and attempting to find ways to rehabilitate them
Attempting to restore the status quo by making offenders repay the victims what they have lost
Set of mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals
Acts of abiding by society's norms
informal social sanctions
Unspoken rules and expectations about people's behavior
formal social sanctions
Rules of laws that prohibit deviant criminal behavior
Durkheim's functions of of deviance
Deviance keeps society together
Degree to which one is integrated in society
Degree to which one is guided by rules and expectations of society
Suicide that occurs when one experiences too little social integration. Have to feel like they have affected the world
Suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration. Army officer who has let squad down
Suicide that occurs as a result of too little social regulation. What can I be sure of?
Suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation. Nothing will ever change.
Merton and strain theory
Deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals Based on socially appropriate goals and socially appropriate means for achieving them
Accepts both appropriate goals and appropriate means
Rejects appropriate goals, but accepts appropriate means
Accepts appropriate goals, but rejects appropriate means
Rejects both appropriate goals and appropriate means
Rejects both appropriate goals and means, and wants to alter or destroy the very social institution that alienated her/him
Those labeled and treated as deviant come to internalize the label and thus become more deviant
First act of rule breaking that may result in the ruler breaker being labeled "deviant"
Acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result a person's new deviant label
Negative social label
differential association theory
Those who associate with deviants learn deviant acts and thus are more likely to commit deviance Criminal behavior is learned through social interaction
broken window theory
People commit deviant acts according to social context and social cues of disorder Criminal behavior is based on local social norms
Crime committed in public
Crime committed by a professional against a corporation, agency, etc.
differential opportunity theorem
People commit crimes based on legitimate and illegitimate economic structures of opportunity in society Crime is dictated by relative returns on opportunities in legitimate and illegitimate economies
People commit crime based on a rational calculation of its costs and benefits
When criminal justice system attempts to prevent criminals from committing more crimes
When a criminal previously punished opts not to commit further crimes
When a criminal previously punished reverts back to criminal behavior
Discipline and Punish- Foucault (1975)
examines the emergence of the modern penal system Pre-modern: Focus on the body Modern: Focus on the "soul" Disciplinary techniques: Modes of monitoring, examining, and regimenting individuals that are diffused throughout society Penal practices are indicative of how social control is exercised in society
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