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social deviance

Any transgression of socially established norms

informal deviance

Minor violations of social norms

formal deviance

Violations of laws enacted by society

social cohesion

Way people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along

mechanical solidarity

Social cohesion based on sameness

organic solidarity

Social cohesion based on difference and interdependence

collective conscience

Set of social norms by which a society and its members abide

punitive justice

Making offenders suffer and thus defining boundaries of acceptable behavior

rehabilitative justice

Examining special circumstances of offenders and attempting to find ways to rehabilitate them


Attempting to restore the status quo by making offenders repay the victims what they have lost

social control

Set of mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals

normative compliance

Acts of abiding by society's norms

informal social sanctions

Unspoken rules and expectations about people's behavior

formal social sanctions

Rules of laws that prohibit deviant criminal behavior

Durkheim's functions of of deviance

Deviance keeps society together

social integration

Degree to which one is integrated in society

social regulation

Degree to which one is guided by rules and expectations of society


Suicide that occurs when one experiences too little social integration. Have to feel like they have affected the world


Suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration. Army officer who has let squad down


Suicide that occurs as a result of too little social regulation. What can I be sure of?


Suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation. Nothing will ever change.

Merton and strain theory

Deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals Based on socially appropriate goals and socially appropriate means for achieving them


Accepts both appropriate goals and appropriate means


Rejects appropriate goals, but accepts appropriate means


Accepts appropriate goals, but rejects appropriate means


Rejects both appropriate goals and appropriate means


Rejects both appropriate goals and means, and wants to alter or destroy the very social institution that alienated her/him

labeling theory

Those labeled and treated as deviant come to internalize the label and thus become more deviant

Primary deviance

First act of rule breaking that may result in the ruler breaker being labeled "deviant"

Secondary deviance

Acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result a person's new deviant label


Negative social label

differential association theory

Those who associate with deviants learn deviant acts and thus are more likely to commit deviance Criminal behavior is learned through social interaction

broken window theory

People commit deviant acts according to social context and social cues of disorder Criminal behavior is based on local social norms

street crime

Crime committed in public

white-collar crime

Crime committed by a professional against a corporation, agency, etc.

differential opportunity theorem

People commit crimes based on legitimate and illegitimate economic structures of opportunity in society Crime is dictated by relative returns on opportunities in legitimate and illegitimate economies

deterrence theory

People commit crime based on a rational calculation of its costs and benefits

specific deterrence

When criminal justice system attempts to prevent criminals from committing more crimes

general deterrence

When a criminal previously punished opts not to commit further crimes


When a criminal previously punished reverts back to criminal behavior

Discipline and Punish- Foucault (1975)

examines the emergence of the modern penal system Pre-modern: Focus on the body Modern: Focus on the "soul" Disciplinary techniques: Modes of monitoring, examining, and regimenting individuals that are diffused throughout society Penal practices are indicative of how social control is exercised in society

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