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Deviance and Social Control

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social deviance
Any transgression of socially established norms
informal deviance
Minor violations of social norms
formal deviance
Violations of laws enacted by society
social cohesion
Way people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along
mechanical solidarity
Social cohesion based on sameness
organic solidarity
Social cohesion based on difference and interdependence
collective conscience
Set of social norms by which a society and its members abide
punitive justice
Making offenders suffer and thus defining boundaries of acceptable behavior
rehabilitative justice
Examining special circumstances of offenders and attempting to find ways to rehabilitate them
restitutive
Attempting to restore the status quo by making offenders repay the victims what they have lost
social control
Set of mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals
normative compliance
Acts of abiding by society's norms
informal social sanctions
Unspoken rules and expectations about people's behavior
formal social sanctions
Rules of laws that prohibit deviant criminal behavior
Durkheim's functions of of deviance
Deviance keeps society together
social integration
Degree to which one is integrated in society
social regulation
Degree to which one is guided by rules and expectations of society
egoistic
Suicide that occurs when one experiences too little social integration. Have to feel like they have affected the world
altruistic
Suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration. Army officer who has let squad down
anomic
Suicide that occurs as a result of too little social regulation. What can I be sure of?
fatalistic
Suicide that occurs as a result of too much social regulation. Nothing will ever change.
Merton and strain theory
Deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals Based on socially appropriate goals and socially appropriate means for achieving them
conformist
Accepts both appropriate goals and appropriate means
ritualist
Rejects appropriate goals, but accepts appropriate means
innovator
Accepts appropriate goals, but rejects appropriate means
retreatist
Rejects both appropriate goals and appropriate means
rebel
Rejects both appropriate goals and means, and wants to alter or destroy the very social institution that alienated her/him
labeling theory
Those labeled and treated as deviant come to internalize the label and thus become more deviant
Primary deviance
First act of rule breaking that may result in the ruler breaker being labeled "deviant"
Secondary deviance
Acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result a person's new deviant label
Stigma
Negative social label
differential association theory
Those who associate with deviants learn deviant acts and thus are more likely to commit deviance Criminal behavior is learned through social interaction
broken window theory
People commit deviant acts according to social context and social cues of disorder Criminal behavior is based on local social norms
street crime
Crime committed in public
white-collar crime
Crime committed by a professional against a corporation, agency, etc.
differential opportunity theorem
People commit crimes based on legitimate and illegitimate economic structures of opportunity in society Crime is dictated by relative returns on opportunities in legitimate and illegitimate economies
deterrence theory
People commit crime based on a rational calculation of its costs and benefits
specific deterrence
When criminal justice system attempts to prevent criminals from committing more crimes
general deterrence
When a criminal previously punished opts not to commit further crimes
recidivism
When a criminal previously punished reverts back to criminal behavior
Discipline and Punish- Foucault (1975)
examines the emergence of the modern penal system Pre-modern: Focus on the body Modern: Focus on the "soul" Disciplinary techniques: Modes of monitoring, examining, and regimenting individuals that are diffused throughout society Penal practices are indicative of how social control is exercised in society