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Examining special circumstances of offenders and attempting to find ways to rehabilitate them
Attempting to restore the status quo by making offenders repay the victims what they have lost
Suicide that occurs when one experiences too little social integration. Have to feel like they have affected the world
Suicide that occurs when one experiences too much social integration. Army officer who has let squad down
Merton and strain theory
Deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals Based on socially appropriate goals and socially appropriate means for achieving them
Rejects both appropriate goals and means, and wants to alter or destroy the very social institution that alienated her/him
Those labeled and treated as deviant come to internalize the label and thus become more deviant
First act of rule breaking that may result in the ruler breaker being labeled "deviant"
Acts of rule breaking that occur after primary deviance and as a result a person's new deviant label
differential association theory
Those who associate with deviants learn deviant acts and thus are more likely to commit deviance Criminal behavior is learned through social interaction
broken window theory
People commit deviant acts according to social context and social cues of disorder Criminal behavior is based on local social norms
differential opportunity theorem
People commit crimes based on legitimate and illegitimate economic structures of opportunity in society Crime is dictated by relative returns on opportunities in legitimate and illegitimate economies
When criminal justice system attempts to prevent criminals from committing more crimes
Discipline and Punish- Foucault (1975)
examines the emergence of the modern penal system Pre-modern: Focus on the body Modern: Focus on the "soul" Disciplinary techniques: Modes of monitoring, examining, and regimenting individuals that are diffused throughout society Penal practices are indicative of how social control is exercised in society
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