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Biological Bases of Behavior
Terms in this set (108)
It is a cell that takes information by receiving it, processing it, and then sending it off (delivering) it to other cells within the body. It is also referred to as a nerve cell and many of them together form nerves.
A neuron receives information, processes it, and then sends it off to other cells in the body.
It is sometimes called an afferent neuron. It is a nerve cell that takes and moves messages from sense receptors and moves them towards the the central nervous system. It acts like a one-way street that only moves toward the brain. It is responsible for your experiences with your senses.
Sensory neurons carry information from sense receptors toward the central nervous system.
It is a nerve cell that moves information out of and away from the brain and central nervous system. It moves messages toward the muscles and glands. It is also referred to as the efferent neurons.
Motor neurons move away from the central nervous system and towards glands, organs, and muscles.
It is a nerve cell that relays information from sensory neurons to motor neurons or to other interneurons. This is usually done in complex pathways, it is usually done in the spinal cord and/or the brain. The brain itself is made mostly of these paths of billions of these.
Interneurons relay information from sensory neurons to either motor neurons or other interneurons.
They are finely branches kinds of fibers that extend out from or away from the cell body. They act in a similar way as a net would since they collect information from other neuron activity near them or from direct stimulus, such as light, sound, and pressure. They come from the main cell body and move their messages into the neuron.
Dendrites collect messages from direct stimulus or other nearby neuron activity.
It is the cell body and is the central part of the neuron that holds the nucleus of the cell, it's life-support materials and looks at the information the dendrites send as well. The level of arousal in it descends on the amount of messages it has coming in.
The soma or cell body holds the cell nucleus and chromosomes.
it is a "transmitter" fiber that is sent messages from aroused neurons. It can extend over large distances and is found in a nerve cell. It moves messages from the soma to the terminal buttons. These messages move through here in an electrical charge form that is known as action potential.
The axon movs information from aroused neurons to the terminal buttons by an electrical charge.
It is the small negative charges that are given t o the axon in a resting or normal state. It is the axon's electrical charge during its state of inactivity, it is when the neuron is ready to "fire".
Resting potential is the electrical charge to the axon in its resting state.
It occurs when there is an issue between the imbalace of positive/negative which is frequent, when there is a charge across the axons cell membrane in the electrical charge. The neuron "fires" which sends the charge through the acon and then makes neurotransmitters release by the terminal buttons.
Action potential occurs because of an electrical charge through the axons cell membrane.
It is based on the fact that when an acon goes through action potential it either is full-blown or nonexistent. There is no inbetween, it either "fires" or doesn't.
The All-or-None principle says an acon either reacts to action potential either all out or not at all.
It is the gap between nerve cells and it is like an electrical insulator because it makes sure the electrical charge going through the axon does not move or jump to another cell. The gap is microscopic and is the neurons communication link, they are also found between the muscles and glands and the neurons that serve them.
They initiate the process of sending information along the synaptic gap/cleft. They are small structures that look similar to bulbs and are found on the end of an acon. They have neurotransmitters within them and they move the information from the neuron into the synapse.
It is the series of events where the electrical message turns into a chemical message that can then easily move across the synaptic gap/cleft between neurons. It relays messages across the synapse by using chemical neurotransmitters.
Synaptic transmission occurs through using chemical neurotransmitters to relay messages through the synapse.
It is a tiny bubble-shaped sac that holds neurotransmitter molecules within it, which then attaches to the presynaptic membrane in order to them release these neurotransmitter molecules into the synapse.
It is the process where transmitter molecules are intercepted while floating through the synapse and then are drawn back intact into vesicles. It "turns the volume down" between the neuron's information.
They are chemicals that are used during neural communication. They send neutral information across the synapse. They are chemical messengers and many of them are also hormones.
Neurotransmitters are used during neutral communication.
It is the way the nervous system can change or adapt in some way because of experience. It may assist the nervous system's response and adapt to physical damage. The brain can be "reprogrammed" by experience. It can change a function or structure in the brain.
They bind meurons to one another and have an insulated covering as well, known as the myelin sheath, This covering is over the axon for some neurons which facilitates the impulse of electric.
Glial: Greek word for glue
Glial cells are the glue between neurons.
It is the whole neuron network in the body which includes both the peripheral and central nervous systems as well as their subdivisions.
Central Nervous System
It is made up of the spinal cord and the brain and it is the "command center" of the body. The spinal cord if like a neutral cable that connects the brain to the peripheral nervous system and the brain handles the body's decisions, functions, and behaviors.
The central nervous system is the body's command center.
It is a very simple response that had not been previously learned and occurs because of being triggered by a stimuli.
An example of a reflex would be the way the knees move because of being tapped on a tendon below the knee by a doctor.
Peripheral Nervous System
It is made up of the rest of the nervous system outside of the central nervous system. It includes both the autonomic and somatic nervous systems as well. It connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body with nerve bundles or motor and sensory axons. It also carries messages to the body that have to do with its senses.
Somatic Nervous System
It is one division of the peripheral nervous system that sends coluntary messages to the skeletal muscles in the body, as well as sending information related to senses to the central nervous system. It is the link between the outside world and the brain.
The somatic nervous system sends sensory messages to the central nervous system and voluntary messages to the body's skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
It is the other division of the peripheral nervous system and it sends information to communicate to and between the central nervous system and the body's internal organs and glands. It helps organs perform their functions without the need for the brain to think about it.
Autonomic - Self regulating and independent
The autonomic nervous system is independent and does not need the brain to think about it.
Sympathetic Nervous System
It is part of the autonomic nervous system and it carries and sends messages or information to internal glands and organs to help alert the body to respond to stressful situations and emergencies. it is also known as the "fight-or-flight" division.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
It is the other part of the autonomic nervous system. It calms the body down after the sympathetic nervous system arouses the body. It monitors the normal routine of the internal organs and their operations. it works with the sympathetic nervous system in the came way a teeter-totter does.
It is also known as the hormone system or the chemical messenger system for the body. It includes endocrine glands such as, the thyroid, ovaries, testes, pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, etc. It usually works with the parasympathetic nervous system, but in emergencies it moves to work with the sympathetic nervous system.
It is a chemical messenger that the endocrine system uses. Many of these can also serve as neurotransmitters and they influence the body behaviorally, emotionally, and functionally.
It is a hormone that is more frequently referred to as adrenalin. It sustains the state of the body in it's defensive reaction. It keeps the body in "fight-or-flight".
An example of when the epinephrine would be used would be if a car was coming toward you on the highway.
It is also called the "master gland" and it creates the hormones influencing all of the other endocrine glands secretions. It also does this with the gland that influences growth, It is attached to and takes orders from the brain's hypothalamus.
It is a sensitive device that can record brain waves without opening the skull. It is able to sense the most active parts of the brain, it can show brain malfunction from abnormal brain waves. It is not very precise though.
Electroencephalographs usually are done by placing electrodes onto the scalp.
Computerized Tomography (CT)
It takes X-Rays of the brain at many angles and then puts them all together to make one static image of the brain.
Computerized tomography uses computer technology to make an image of someone's brain.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
It creates an image of activity in the brain, rather than it's structure. It can be done by sensing sugar concentration, which is found in the most active circuits off the brain in its highest levels. These parts will appear brighter in the image.
PET scans rely on active brain cells consuming radioactive sugar.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
It looks at a brain's structure by taking vivid images of the brain by magnetic energy causing tissue responses. It relies on the responses of cells with a highly intense magnetic field.
Magnetic resonance imaging relies on a very intense magnetic field and a cells response to that field.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
It shows which areas of the brain are more active and which are less active during mental processes. It is a kind of MRI that creates more detailed images than the PET and shows the brain working.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging shows the brain functioning more and/or less in different areas.
It likely has the longest ancestry out of the brain. It is like a stalk that controls the most basic and simple life processes. The brain is made of three major layers, and this is the most basic. Within it is the reticular formation, medulla, and pons.
The brain stem is the basic stalk of the brain.
It is a structure of the brain stem which controls heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing without having to think about them (automatic). It is a bulge low in the brain stem and is the location where sensory and motor neuron pathways cross that connect the body and the brain.
The medulla does functions for the body's internal organs without conscious awareness.
It is a larger bulge above the medulla. It contains nerve circuits that help to regulate the cycles for sleeping and dreaming. It also connects the cerebellum to the brain stem and is a brain-stem structure.
It is the structure that forms the core of the brain stem and is shaped like a pencil. It tells the brain to stay alert in new stimulation. It is a bundle of nerve cells that keep the brain awake and monitoring direct messages.
The reticular formation is the circular pencil-shaped brain stem core.
It is the central "relay station" in the brain and it sits right on top of the brain stem. Almost all of the messages going into or out of the brain go through it. It is near the center of the brain and it helps to focus attention and connects to almost everything.
The thalamus must have the messages go into or out of it.
It looks like a mini brain and it is attached to the brain stem. It is responsible for coordinated movements and it helps to control basic body functions in life.
Cerebellum - mini brain
The cerebellum looks like a mini brain.
It is the layer in the middle of the brain and it is involved in memories and emotions. Within it is the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, etc. These structures wrap around the thalamus and they make more emotional capacity.
It is a structure in the limbic system and it helps to establish long-term memories. It helps to connect one's past to their present.
It is a structure of the limbic system that is involved in emotions and memories, mostly of aggression and fear. It allows people to remember emotionally charged events, like September 11th.
Amygdala - Almond (Greek)
The amygdala is shaped like an almond.
It is another structure in the limbic system and it tests the body's blood. It constantly monitors the blood to know the condition the body is in. It links together the endocrine system and the nervous system.
It is the thin grayish matter that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is 1/4 of a later thick with neuron cell bodies and it is what helps with higher thinking like perceiving and mental processing.
They are cortical areas near the front of the brain and they are mostly involved in thinking as well as movement. They help with decisions, plans, and the way we perceive different things.
Frontal lobes are situated in the front of the brain.
It is near the frontal lobes and is a thin vertical strip of cortex. It is situated right in front of the central fissure. It controls all the voluntary movements and sends messages through motor neurons to voluntary muscles in the body.
They are cortical areas that are situated in near the top of the brain and the back of it. They are used to help perceive the relationship between space and objects and they also help with the sensation of touch.
It is a part of the parietal lobe that sits right behind the central fissure. It is involved in touch sensations, pain, temperature level, and amounts of pressure. It also helps you to know where these sensations are occuring.
it is found at the back of the brain and is a cortical region. It holds the visual cortex.
It is the area of the cortex that helps to process things visually in the temporal and occipital lobes. It is how we see the world as a moving picture.
It is a cortical lobe that is able to process different sounds and speech. It likely plays a part in helping to store long term memories and it is on the lower areas of the cerebral hemisphere.
It combines information from multiple different parts of the brain and is cortical regions found throughout the brain. It takes and interprets sensory information.
The association cortex prepares us for action, tries to interpret sensations, makes decisions, and lays out plans.
It is the group of nerve fibers that sends information between the right and left hemispheres. It connects the two cerebral hemispheres and looks like a band.
The corpus callosum connects the left and right hemispheres.
Wilder and Penfield
He found the different cortex areas and what they each have control of. He took patients having seizures and poked different parts of their brain. One part they may have poked may make the patient think they are smelling burning toast or they may feel like someone is touching their hand.
It is a psychological specialty that studies the combination or interaction between mental processes, behavior, and biology. They look at things such as how the human brain can think about itself.
Biopsychology looks at the psychological connection between biology, mental processes, and behavior.
It is a newer interdisciplinary field that looks at and studies the brain's role in psychological processes. It looks at the connection found between the mind and the brain.
An example of neuroscience would be the understanding of sleep disorders and how to treat them based on studying the brain and it's psychological processes.
It occurs when an organism needs to adapt to its environment through biological process changes that very gradually occur. It has shaped the processes of psychology by favoring genetic variation that results in the production of adapted behaviors.
An example of evolution would be the large size of our brains and their complexity to have more functions, emotions, etc.
It is the force behind evolution where the environment "picks" the best fit species. It says that better adapted individuals are more likely to reproduce and survive compared to less adapted individuals.
An example of natural selection would be a bird with a perfectly sized beak that can easily break seeds for food in that area.
It is it's genetic makeup and it is the genetic pattern that makes every individual unique and different from everyone and everything else. It is like the "blueprint" and it depends on heredity.
A genotype is an organism's genetic makeup.
It depends on its genotype and it makes a person's physical structure that is seen. It also causes the wiring of the brain and occurs by both the environment and heredity.
A phenotype is an organism's observable physical characteristics.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
It is a complex long molecule that holds encoded genetic characteristics. It stores biological information within it.
It is a chromosome segment that encodes within it an organism's mental and physical inherited characteristics. They are a chromosome's functional units and they specify a single protein that when combined regulates internal body operations.
It is a threadlike structure that is tightly coiled and the genes here are organized like beads on a necklace. They consist mostly of DNA and are needed by all cells to function correctly.
They determine physical sex characteristics, they are known as the X and Y chromosomes because of their shape. We get an X from our biological mothers and either an X or a Y from out biological fathers.
XX - Female XY - Male
Sex chromosomes determine an individual's biological sex.
It was the idea of studying the bumps on the skull in hopes to find the size of the brain, traits of individuals and their mental abilities. It was started in the 1800's by Franz Gall, it is not accepted anymore and it looked at different parts of the brain and believed they all had specific functions. It has since been debunked.
Phrenology was started by Franz Gall.
It is something that speeds up neural impulses and looks like a layer of fat tissue that covers the axon.
The myelin sheath helps move the neural impulses quickly across the line of the axon.
Node of Ranvier
It is the different gaps within the myelin sheath that neural impulses hop or jump over.
It is what produces or creates the myelin sheath and it also supports glial cells.
It is when the positive sodium ions flood into the axon channels because of being attracted to their negative inside or interior.
Depolarization involved positive sodium ions.
It is when potassium ions flow out of the channel. The neuron is not firing at this time.
Repolarization includes potassium ions and the neuron is not firing.
It is the level of stimulation that is needed in order to trigger a neural impulse. Excitatory signals need to make a neuron get to -55 mV so that an action potential can occur.
It is the brief resting pause that occurs after a neuron fires. It is when the neuron is recharging and CAN NOT physically fire.
The refractory period of a neuron is when it recharges and resets itself before being able to fire again.
It is found in every area between muscles and motor neurons and is released to allow muscles to contract. It enables muscles to move, and assists in both memory and learning. When it is released it hits a gland and sends the message that muscles need to move. It helps to make new memories, alzheimers occurs when they breakdown making it hard to remember memories. Having too little of it can cause muscles to have difficulty being able to contract.
An example of Acetylcholine (ACh) would be when people get botox to block receptor sites so that it cannot tell the body to wrinkle it's forehead.
It is a neurotransmitter that influences emotions, attential, movement, and learning. It is involved in pleasure and reward. If you have too much of it you may get schizophrenia and if you have too little of it you may have Parkinson's Disease or tremors. It is related to many addictions and is an excitatory neurotransmitter.
An example of dopamine would be when you are starving all day and finally find your crunchy chips and take a bite and feel happy do you keep shoveling them into your mouth.
It is a neurotransmitter that works with arousal, mood, hunger, and sleep. It is NOT the happy neurotransmitter, but it is mood regulating. If you have too little of it you will likely have depression, but we don't know what really happens if you have too much.
It is a neurotransmitter that controls both arousal and alertness. If you have too little of it you may have a depressed mood, but we do not know what too much may be (likely an anxiety disorder).
It is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. It is what balances and calms down the mind. Alcohol pretends to be it and breaks down into it. If you have too little you will probably have insomnia, tremors, and/or seizures. If you have too much, you will likely die because it could slow your heart rate too much.
It is a major excitatory neurotransmitter that is involved in memory. It is very hyperactive. If you have too much of it you will likely have migraines or seizures.
An example of this would be when you eat MSG (monosodium glutamate) in your chinese food and then get a headache later. The headache is occurring because of the glutamate reacting to the MSG.
They are neurotransmitters that help influence perception of pleasure and/or pain. They are the body's natural pain killers. Everyone has different levels of it, if you have a lot of it you likely have a high pain tolerance and if you do not have many of them you probably have a low pain tolerance.
It is a kind of drug that increases a neurotransmitter's action. It can increase the production and release of neurotransmitters, make copies of neurotransmitters, blocks reuptake from the synapse and/or the axon, and/or mimic the same effect of a natural neurotransmitter.
An example of these drugs would be cocaine or opiates.
It is a drug that decreases a neurotransmitter's activity. It blocks a receptor site to decrease a neuron's activation.
An example of this would be if someone stuck a foreign coin in a vending machine because it would go in but they would not get anything in return. Another example would be sticking gum in a vending machine, this would block where the coins go in and where the action would begin.
It is the "bonding hormone" in the endocrine system. It is what allows birth contractions, it is released after/during an orgasm, etc.
It is a stress hormone that increases an individual's blood sugar. It is slow burning stress hormone that increases blood sugar for a long period of time.
These trigger the fight or flight response by releasing norepinephrine (noradrenalin) and epinephrine (adrenaline) to arouse the body when put in a stressful situation. They are found right next to the kidneys.
They release sex hormones.
It regulates blood sugar.
It is what regulates metabolism and it secretes thyroxin.
It secretes melatonin in order to regulate sleep in an individual. It is in the center of the brain and contains melatonin.
An example of when this would work would be when you are in a dark environment, so this gland tells the body to go to sleep. Because the different things that connect to it are related to light, when you look at your phone this gland sees that and tells the body that it is daytime and that it should stay awake.
It is when your either destroy tissue naturally or experimentally.
It works with higher mental functions, self regulation, planning, judgement, personality, and both impulse and emotion control. It is found in the front of the frontal lobe and is not fully developed until the age of 25.
An example of this would be Phineas Gage, it is believed that he damaged this part of his brain in his accident where his personality changed from before and after the accident.
It is the language area that is associated with the control of motor movements that are involved in speech. It is found near the motor cortex in the frontal lobe. It allows for unbroken, smooth, and fluent speech. It is only on the left side of the brain.
An example of how this area can be seen would be when someone has Broca's Aphasia. They have broken speech, so what they are saying makes sense but it is not fluent in complete sentences. It is hard for them to find the right words to make a sentence. It does not affect writing though.
This area of the brain controls language comprehension and understanding. It is found in the border region of the temporal and parietal lobe. It allows one to be able to understand the words coming out of someone else's mouth or being able to read a powerpoint and having it make sense. It is the sound of you talking to yourself in your head. It is a language area with only on the left side of the brain.
An example of this area of the brain can be seen with people who have Wernicke's Aphasia, where someone has fluent and smooth speech but what they are saying does not make any sense. People with it do not always understand the questions asked to them and they do not know that they don't make sense. They would write things the same way they talk, in nonsense.
It is a language area only found on the left side of the brain. It is what translates visual written information into speech. It is what talks and communicates with the Wernicke's area in order to comprehend and understand language. It is mostly found in the occipital lobe but partially in the temporal and frontal lobe also. It is only seen in written information and when someone is reading, the signal goes here before going to the wernicke's area. It helps to translate phrases.
It is the formation of new neurons. It usually occurs during infancy between the ages of 1 - 3 years old. It is when all of the neurons are formed that the brain will ever have.
It is a condition where a person can respond to visual stimulation without consciously experiencing it. It is when someone has damage to their visual cortex and the brain has difficulty processing visual pictures even through the eyes can easily see.
An example of blindsight would be if someone was walking through a hall full of traffic cones, they would avoid all of the cones even though they can't really process being able to see them. They don't really see it but avoid it anyways.
It is being able to process many aspects of a problem all at the same time, it is usually used to understand well-learned information or when solving easy problems. It is usually used for very easy things and it is the closest we will get at multitasking.
An example of parallel processing would be going through multiple routine activities at once, such as walking and chewing gum simultaneously.
It is processing one aspect of a problem at a time, it is used to understand new information or when solving a difficult problem. It is processing something in a sequence usually with something difficult and new.
An example of this would be moving your right foot in a counterclockwise circle and then trying to write the number six in the air with your right hand. You cannot do both at once and your foot will begin to turn the other way.
It is all of the genetic material in one organism's chromosomes. It is the largest structure out of DNA, chromosomes, and genes and is the entire set of genetic material.
They are developed from one fertilized egg (zygote) that splits in half to create two genetically identical individuals. They are essentially clones but may have different numbers of copies of genes. Many of them share a placenta, but about a third of them had separate placentas which can show differences because of the different environment and nourishment levels. They share 100% of their genetic material and DNA.
Mono - One
Zygote- Fertilized egg
Monozygotic twins are created from one fertilized egg.
They are developed from two separate fertilized eggs and are genetically no similar than normal sibling, except they shared the same prenatal environment as one another. They share 50% genetic material, the same as normal siblings and may only appear more similar from sharing the same womb environment.
Di - Two
Zygote - Fertilized Egg
Dizygotic twins are formed from two separate fertilized eggs.
He found that identical twins that were raised apart from one another were incredibly similar in intelligence, heart rate, brain waves, abilities, personality, attitudes, and voice. It was one of the longest studies on twins. It showed that the environment shared by a family's children has essentially no discernable impact on their personalities. It showed that shared genes have shared experiences.
It is the proportion of variation among individuals in a group that can be attributed to genes. Most personality traits can be 40% attributed to genes and for general intelligence 66% of it is inherited from one's biological parents. It describes the amount of variation that genetics can explain and shows how much difference between people is due to genes. It does not mean you get that percent of it from your parents.
An example of heritability would be height, since there is a large variation in the world of how tall people are. 90% (the proportion) of variable heights can be attributed to genetic differences. It does not mean 90% of your height comes from your parents, but that 90% of it is heritable.
It is the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without change in DNA. It changes gene expression and is how the environment turns on and off genes.
An example of epigenetics would be how mother rats lick their infants after they are born. By separating the rat child from its mother it was noticed that the child did not have as many receptors for stress hormones. When the rat was stressed, it's average level of stress hormones in its blood was more reactive. The mother licking its rat infant turned on the genes that were related to those stress hormone genes.
It is a disorder that affects speech. It is an umbrella term that is used for a disorder that affects language in some way. This includes, writing, speaking, listening, and understanding.
Sperry and Gazzaniga
They were people who had epilepsy and had severe seizures and then cut their corpus callosum. They then tried to do different experiments to test how their two brain hemispheres worked after the operation compared to how it would normally. They found that things related to one side of the brain when flashed to the opposite side of the body were seen, however when flashed to the other side they were not.
An example of this would be when they put the word FACE on the right side of the screen, since the left hemisphere is associated with verbal processing, they could say they saw the word face. However, if flashed to the left side, they would be unable to say they saw the word face but because the right hemisphere is related to artistic abilities, they could draw a face with their left hand.
Penfield and Foerster
They mapped the motor sensory cortices and found where different sensory information is found in the brain. They were doing brain surgery on a person who was having seizures and then because the brain has no pain receptors, it was awake. They would poke one area and the patient would say "Is someone burning toast?" or "Is someone touching my left hand?"
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