Classification & Structure of Bones & Cartilage
Terms in this set (149)
The body's framework, is constructed of 2 of the most supportive tissues found in the human body - cartilage & bone.
Joints; connect bones together.
Bones that lie around the body's center of gravity.The portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk.
Portion of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the limbs, or appendages.
Cartilage that covers the bone ends at movable joints.
Cartilage found connecting the ribs to the sternum (breastbone).
Cartilage that largely construct the larynx (voice box).
Tracheal & Bronchial Cartilages
Cartilage that reinforce other passageways of the respiratory system.
Cartilage that supports the external nose.
Cartilage that separate & cushion bones of the spine (vertebrae).
The Most Important Skeletal Cartilages
Articular, Coastal, Laryngeal, Tracheal & Bronchial, Nasal, & Elastic Cartilage (supports the ear), & Intervertebral Discs.
Provides sturdy support with some resilience or "give." Most skeletal cartilages are composed of Hyaline.
Flexible and tolerates repeated bending. Composes the external ear & epiglottis.
Has great tensile strength and can withstand heavy compression. Used to construct the intervertebral disks & cartilages within the knee joints.
Looks smooth and homogeneous.
Is composed of small trabeculae (bars) of bone and lots of open space.
Internal to the spongy bone, a honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces.
Are much longer than they are wide, consist of a shaft with heads at either end. Composed primarily of compact bone.
Cube-shaped & contain more spongy bone than compact bone.
Thin, with 2 wafer-like layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them. Many are curved.
Bones that do not fall into any of the other categories.
Special types of short bones formed in tendons.
Wormian or Sutural Bones
Tiny bones between cranial bones.
Reveal where bones form joints with other bones, where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached, & where blood vessels and nerves passed.
A shaft, forms the long axis of the bone. Composed of compact bone.
A fibrous membrane that covers the entire bone (except the joint).
Perforating (Sharpey's) Fibers
The many fibers of the periosteum that penetrate the bone. Through which blood vessels and nerves travel through.
The end of the long bone. Composed of a thin layer of compact bone that encloses spongy bone.
Covers the epiphyseal surface in place of the periosteum. Provides a smooth surface to prevent friction at joints.
A disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone.
Once the long bone has stopped growing, the epiphyseal plate is replaced with bone and appears as a thin, barely discernible, remenant.
A marrow cavity.
Adipose tissue contained in the medullary cavity of adults.
Hematopoietic tissue found within the trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long bones and flat bones.
A delicate connective tissue membrane that covers internal bone surfaces. It covers the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the canals that pass through the compact bone.
*Projections That Are Sites of Muscle & Ligament Attachment
Tuberosity, Crest, Trochanter, Line, Tubercle, Epicondyle, Spine, & Process.
Large rounded projection; may be roughened.*
Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent (noticeable).*
Large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (only examples are on the femur.*
Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than the crest.
Small rounded projection or process.*
Raised area on or above a condyle.
Sharp, slender, often pointed projection.*
Any bony projection or prominence.*
^Projections That Help Form Joints
Head, Facet, Condyle, & Ramus.
Bony structure supported on a narrow neck.^
Smooth, nearly flat articulate surface.^
Rounded, articular projection.^
Arm-like bar of bone.^
+Depressions and Openings for Passage of Blood Vessles & Nerves
Groove, Fissure, Foramen, & Notch.
Furrow (a narrow groovelike or trenchlike depression in any surface).+
Narrow, slit-like opening.+
Round or oval opening through a bone.+
Indentation at the edge of a structure.+
~Other Bone Markings
Meatus, Sinus, & Fossa.
Bone cavity, filled with air & lined with mucous membrane.~
Shallow, basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface.~
Central (Haversian) Canal
Runs parallel to the long axis of the bone & carries blood vessels, nerves, & lymph vessles through the bony matrix.
Mature bone cells that maintain bone matrix. Located in Lacunae.
Chambers arranged in concentric circles around the central canal. Contain osteocytes.
Hard bone matrix arranged in concentric rings surrounding the central canal in an osteon.
A central canal & all the concentric lamellae surrounding it.
Between intact osteons.
Tiny canals that connect to the central canal and connect the lacunae to each other. Form a dense transportation network, connecting all living cells of the osteon to the nutrient supply.
Perforating (Volkmann's) Canals
Canals that run into the compact bone & marrow cavity from the periosteum. Complete the communication pathway between the bone interior & its external surface.
Process where all bones of the body (except clavicles) inferior to the skull form in the embryo.
1st Major Event of Endochondral Ossification
The fibrous membrane covering the hyaline cartilage model is vascularized & converted into periosteum.
2nd Major Event of Endochondral Ossification
Osteoblasts at the inner surface of the periosteum secrete bone matrix around the hyaline cartilage mdoel, forming a bone collar.
3rd Major Event of Endochondral Ossification
Cartilage in the shaft center calcifies & then hollows out, forming an internal cavity.
Out of long, short, flat, & irregular, which category has the least amount of spongy bone relative to it's total volume?
Contains spongy bone in adults
Made of compact bone
Site of blood cell formation
Red Marrow Cavity
Major submembranous site of osteoclasts
Term for bone shaft
Contains fat in adult bones
Growth plate remnant
Major submembranous site of osteoblasts
What observable difference is there between compact & spongy bone?
Compact is smooth & homogeneous, while spongy bone is composed of trabeculae of bone and has open space.
The route taken by nutrients through a bone
Periosteum --> Perforating Canals --> Central Canals --> Canaliculus --> Lacunae --> Osteocyte
Layers of bony matrix around a central canal
Site of osteocytes
Longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves
Minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon
Inorganic salt deposited in organic ground substance
Function of the organic matrix
Name the important organic bone components.
What is the function of the calcium salts that form the inorganic material of the bone?
Creates the hardness of the bone
Baking removes_____ from bone.
Soaking bone in acid removes_____
Supports the external ear
Between the vertebrae
Froms the walls of the voice box (larynx)
Meniscus in a knee joint
Connects ribs to the sternum
Most effective at resisting compression
Most springy & flexible
Bridge of Nose
Much of the lateral & superior cranium
Most posterior part of cranium
Single, irregular, bat-shaped bone forming part of the cranial floor
Tiny bones bearing tear ducts
Anterior part of hard palate
Superior & middle nasal conache formed from its projections
Site of mastoid process
Site of sella turcia
Site of cribriform plate
Site of mental foramen
Site of styloid process
Condyles here articulate with the atlas
Foramen magnum ontained here
Small U-shaped bone in neck, where many tongue muscles attach
Middle ear found here
Bears an upward protrusion, the "cock's comb," or crista galli.
Mandible & Maxilla
Contain alveoli bearing teeth
The only skull bone not joined by a suture.
Occipital & Parietal
Bones connected by the lamboid suture.
Temporal & Parietal
Bones connected by the squamous suture.
Lighten the facial bones, & resonance chambers for speech
Functions of the sinuses
The bony cavity that surrounds the eye.
Frontal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Lacrimal, Maxilla, Palatine, & Zygomatic
Bones that form the orbit.
The reason why the sphenoid bone can be called the keystone of the cranial floor.
Because it articulates with all other cranial bones.
Vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain.
Dens here provides a pivot rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1).
Transverse Processes faceted for articulation with ribs; spinous process pointing sharply downward.
Composite bone; articulates with the hip bone laterally.
Massive vertebrae; weight-sustaining.
"Tail bone"; vestigial fused vertebrae.
Supports the head; allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occipital condyles.
Cavity enclosing the nerve cord.
Weight-bearing portion of the vertebra.
Spinous & Transverse Processes
Provides levers against which muscles pull.
Transverse Process & Body
Provide an articulation point for the ribs.
Provide openings for exit of spinal nerves.
Body & Vertebral Arch
Structures that form an enclosure for the spinal cord.
Invertebral Discs & the Vertebral Column's S-shape
2 Factors that permit flexibility of the vertebral column.
Cartilage that composes intervertebral discs.
Painful rupture of the intervertebral discs.
Thoracic & Sacral Curvatures
2 Spinal curvatures obvious at birth.