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61 terms

AP World Quizzes 9-11

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what was seen as a direct continuation of the eastern portion of the roman empire
byzantine empire
the byzantine empire lasted from
500 to 1450
what was the main religion of the byzantine empire
christianity
what country was particularly influenced by the byzantine civilization
russia
what represents similarities between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe
civilization spread northward from a mediterranean base; animism gave way to monotheism; in both cases newly civilized areas looked back to the greco-roman past
what was the difference in the military organization of byzantine and western roman empires
the byzantine empire recruited men from the middle east
what was the great church built in constantinople by justinian
hagia sophia
starting after the reign of justinian what was the official language of the eastern empire
greek
who was the brilliant general who helped justinian achieve military gains in north africa and italy
belisarius
the name normally given to the form of christianity that emerged in the byzantine empire was
orthodox christianity
what were some of justinians positive contributions to the byzantine empire
the rebuilding of constantinople; systematizing of the roman legal code; the construction of hagia sophia
the former courtesan who was justinian's wife and advisor
theodora
what were the outcomes of justinian's wars of reconquest
increased tax pressures on the government; military successes in north africa and italy; weakening of the empire's defenses on its eastern frontiers
what was the technological innovation that aided the byzantine empire in withstanding the muslim siege of constantinople in 717
greek fire
what is true concerning urbanization within the byzantine empire
constantinople controlled the economy and grew to an enormous size, but other cities were relatively small
what were the primary exports of the byzantine empire
luxery products such as silk, cloths and carpets
what is true concerning the merchant class of the byzantine empire
there was a large and wealthy merchant class in the byzantine empire but it never gained significant political power because of the power of the bureaucracy
what were strengths of byzantine cultural life
domed buildings adapted from roman style of architecture; richly colored mosaics; painted icons
what describes a key difference between art in western and eastern christianity
art in the roman church emphasizes christ's suffering, while orthodox art emphasizes christ's majesty.
what was one of the key causes for the split of the roman catholic and orthodox churches after 1054
the roman catholic practice requiring celibacy for its priests
in the 11th century, what group of people seized most of the asiatic provinces of the byzantine empire
the seljuk turks
in what year did the turks successfully capture constantinople
1453
what two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for slavic language
cyril and methodius
the slavic alphabet created by orthodox missionaries to the slavs is called
cyrillic
which country was converted to orthodox christianity
russia
why did vladimir 1 prefer orthodox christianity to roman catholicism
he believed that roman catholicism implied papal interference while orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by the state
the post classical period in western history between the fall of the roman empire and 15th century is referred to as
middle ages
how was the medieval west not like other civilizations
the medieval west remained culturally backward
how was the medieval west like other civilizations
saw the spread of civilization outside the mediterranean zone core region to new areas in northern europe; new religious beliefs accompanied the spread of civilization; western europe participated in the emerging international community
medieval backwardness in western europe accounts for
the anxiety of the west about the more powerful muslim world
following the fall of rome, where was the center of the post-classical west
in the central plain of northern europe: france, the low countries, and southern and western germany
who were the invaders who disrupted the development of political institutions in the medieval west until the 10th century
vikings
what is true concerning the intellectual activity of the medieval west prior to the 8th century
with the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts
the system that described economic and political relations between the landlords and their peasant laborers was
manorialism
agricultural laborers under the jurisdiction of aristocratic landowners were called
serfs
what is true concerning agricultural laborers of the medieval west
received protection and administration of justice from their landlords; obligated to turn over part of their goods to remain on the land; retained essential ownership of their houses
the moldboard was
a technological innovation- a plow that allowed deeper turning of the soil
what is true concerning the three-field rotation system
introduced in the 8th century, added acres to production by leaving only a third of the land unplanted
relationships between members of the military elite based on reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty was called
feudalism
pope gregory 7 decreed the practice of investiture invalid. what is investiture
the practice of state appointment of bishops
the fourth crusade was manipulated by merchants in venice who turned it into an attack on
constantinople
in the 12th century, what parisian scholar, the author of yes and no, utilized logic to examine ecclesiastical doctrine
peter abelard
what 12th century monk stressed the importance of a mystical union with god
bernard of clairvaux
in what ways was the educational system of the medieval west different from that of china
the universities were not tied into a single bureaucratic system
the leading figure in the synthesis of classical rational philosophy with christian theology was a teacher at the university of paris in the 13th century...
thomas aquinas
because of its base in universities of western europe, the dominant medieval philosophical approach was referred to as
scholasticism
during the 11th century, what new architectural style featuring pointed arches and flying buttresses became dominant in western europe
gothic
what developments were results of the improved economy of the high middle ages
urban growth allowed more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities, including banking; some peasants were able to throw off the most severe constrains of manorialism, becoming almost free farmers; rising trade permitted the redevelopment of commerce within the mediterranean and beyond
what were functions of the merchant and artisan guilds
limitation of membership; regulation of apprenticeship; guaranteeing good workmanship
during the post-classical period, societies in the americas
remained in relative isolation from the other centers of world history
what are characteristics of aztec civilization during the postclassical period
large cities based on elaborate political and economic organization; elaborate cultural systems; high developed agriculture
the northern nomadic peoples who entered central mexico following the decline of teotihuacan and established their capital at tula in 968 were the
toltecs
the aztec capital was established at
tenochtitlan
how did the aztecs view the cultural achievements of the toltecs
as the givers of civilization
around what year did the aztecs migrate to central valley mexico
1325
in the period shortly after the arrival of aztecs in the valley on mexico, what was the nature of the political organization in the region
city states
the aztec awaited the appearance of an eagle landing on a cactus with a serpent in it's mouth. when this appeared
their wanderings would stop
what occurred as a result of the aztec rise to power
increasing dominance of the nobility; emergence of a ruler with supreme powers; subsequent expansion of power and boundaries of aztec control
what was the impact of expansion and conquest on the aztec social system
aztec society became more hierarchal
tlaloc was the aztec god of
rain
what is true concerning aztec religion
aztec dieties were numerous and had different forms or manifestations somewhat like the avatars of the hindu dieties