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what was seen as a direct continuation of the eastern portion of the roman empire

byzantine empire

the byzantine empire lasted from

500 to 1450

what was the main religion of the byzantine empire


what country was particularly influenced by the byzantine civilization


what represents similarities between the spread of civilization in eastern and western europe

civilization spread northward from a mediterranean base; animism gave way to monotheism; in both cases newly civilized areas looked back to the greco-roman past

what was the difference in the military organization of byzantine and western roman empires

the byzantine empire recruited men from the middle east

what was the great church built in constantinople by justinian

hagia sophia

starting after the reign of justinian what was the official language of the eastern empire


who was the brilliant general who helped justinian achieve military gains in north africa and italy


the name normally given to the form of christianity that emerged in the byzantine empire was

orthodox christianity

what were some of justinians positive contributions to the byzantine empire

the rebuilding of constantinople; systematizing of the roman legal code; the construction of hagia sophia

the former courtesan who was justinian's wife and advisor


what were the outcomes of justinian's wars of reconquest

increased tax pressures on the government; military successes in north africa and italy; weakening of the empire's defenses on its eastern frontiers

what was the technological innovation that aided the byzantine empire in withstanding the muslim siege of constantinople in 717

greek fire

what is true concerning urbanization within the byzantine empire

constantinople controlled the economy and grew to an enormous size, but other cities were relatively small

what were the primary exports of the byzantine empire

luxery products such as silk, cloths and carpets

what is true concerning the merchant class of the byzantine empire

there was a large and wealthy merchant class in the byzantine empire but it never gained significant political power because of the power of the bureaucracy

what were strengths of byzantine cultural life

domed buildings adapted from roman style of architecture; richly colored mosaics; painted icons

what describes a key difference between art in western and eastern christianity

art in the roman church emphasizes christ's suffering, while orthodox art emphasizes christ's majesty.

what was one of the key causes for the split of the roman catholic and orthodox churches after 1054

the roman catholic practice requiring celibacy for its priests

in the 11th century, what group of people seized most of the asiatic provinces of the byzantine empire

the seljuk turks

in what year did the turks successfully capture constantinople


what two missionaries were responsible for the creation of a written script for slavic language

cyril and methodius

the slavic alphabet created by orthodox missionaries to the slavs is called


which country was converted to orthodox christianity


why did vladimir 1 prefer orthodox christianity to roman catholicism

he believed that roman catholicism implied papal interference while orthodoxy embraced the control of the church by the state

the post classical period in western history between the fall of the roman empire and 15th century is referred to as

middle ages

how was the medieval west not like other civilizations

the medieval west remained culturally backward

how was the medieval west like other civilizations

saw the spread of civilization outside the mediterranean zone core region to new areas in northern europe; new religious beliefs accompanied the spread of civilization; western europe participated in the emerging international community

medieval backwardness in western europe accounts for

the anxiety of the west about the more powerful muslim world

following the fall of rome, where was the center of the post-classical west

in the central plain of northern europe: france, the low countries, and southern and western germany

who were the invaders who disrupted the development of political institutions in the medieval west until the 10th century


what is true concerning the intellectual activity of the medieval west prior to the 8th century

with the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts

the system that described economic and political relations between the landlords and their peasant laborers was


agricultural laborers under the jurisdiction of aristocratic landowners were called


what is true concerning agricultural laborers of the medieval west

received protection and administration of justice from their landlords; obligated to turn over part of their goods to remain on the land; retained essential ownership of their houses

the moldboard was

a technological innovation- a plow that allowed deeper turning of the soil

what is true concerning the three-field rotation system

introduced in the 8th century, added acres to production by leaving only a third of the land unplanted

relationships between members of the military elite based on reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty was called


pope gregory 7 decreed the practice of investiture invalid. what is investiture

the practice of state appointment of bishops

the fourth crusade was manipulated by merchants in venice who turned it into an attack on


in the 12th century, what parisian scholar, the author of yes and no, utilized logic to examine ecclesiastical doctrine

peter abelard

what 12th century monk stressed the importance of a mystical union with god

bernard of clairvaux

in what ways was the educational system of the medieval west different from that of china

the universities were not tied into a single bureaucratic system

the leading figure in the synthesis of classical rational philosophy with christian theology was a teacher at the university of paris in the 13th century...

thomas aquinas

because of its base in universities of western europe, the dominant medieval philosophical approach was referred to as


during the 11th century, what new architectural style featuring pointed arches and flying buttresses became dominant in western europe


what developments were results of the improved economy of the high middle ages

urban growth allowed more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities, including banking; some peasants were able to throw off the most severe constrains of manorialism, becoming almost free farmers; rising trade permitted the redevelopment of commerce within the mediterranean and beyond

what were functions of the merchant and artisan guilds

limitation of membership; regulation of apprenticeship; guaranteeing good workmanship

during the post-classical period, societies in the americas

remained in relative isolation from the other centers of world history

what are characteristics of aztec civilization during the postclassical period

large cities based on elaborate political and economic organization; elaborate cultural systems; high developed agriculture

the northern nomadic peoples who entered central mexico following the decline of teotihuacan and established their capital at tula in 968 were the


the aztec capital was established at


how did the aztecs view the cultural achievements of the toltecs

as the givers of civilization

around what year did the aztecs migrate to central valley mexico


in the period shortly after the arrival of aztecs in the valley on mexico, what was the nature of the political organization in the region

city states

the aztec awaited the appearance of an eagle landing on a cactus with a serpent in it's mouth. when this appeared

their wanderings would stop

what occurred as a result of the aztec rise to power

increasing dominance of the nobility; emergence of a ruler with supreme powers; subsequent expansion of power and boundaries of aztec control

what was the impact of expansion and conquest on the aztec social system

aztec society became more hierarchal

tlaloc was the aztec god of


what is true concerning aztec religion

aztec dieties were numerous and had different forms or manifestations somewhat like the avatars of the hindu dieties

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