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36 terms

AP Bio Chapter 10

STUDY
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AIDS
The name of the late stages of HIV infection
anticodon
Base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule
bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria
codon
Three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal
DNA ligase
Catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain
DNA polymerase
Enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
exon
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene
HIV
The infectious agent that causes AIDS
intron
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
lysogenic cycle
Phage replication cycle in which the virus does not kill the host
lytic cycle
A type of viral replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by death or lysis of the host cell.
messenger RNA
A type of RNA that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
molecular biology
The study of the molecular basis of genes and gene expression
mutagen
Chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
mutation
A rare change in the DNA of a gene ultimately creating genetic diversity.
nucleotide
Building block of a nucleic acid.
polynucleotide
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers
promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
prophage
A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.
reading frame
The way a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons.
retrovirus
An RNA virus
reverse transcriptase
Enzyme encoded by some RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
ribosomal RNA
The most abundant type of RNA
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription
RNA splicing
The removal of noncoding portions of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis
start codon
Specific three-nucleotide sequence (AUG) to which an initiator tRNA molecule binds
stop codon
One of three triplets (UAG, UAA, UGA) that signal gene translation to stop
sugar-phosphate backbone
The alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which the DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached.
terminator
A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene
transcription
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
transfer RNA
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language
translation
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule
translocation
When the RNA carrying the growing polypeptide moves from the A site to the P site on the ribosome.
triplet code
A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains
uracil (U)
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in RNA but not DNA