Bio 10 Exam 2

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Energy
the ability to do work (ex. bring about change; move against an opposing force)
thermodynamics
the study of energy
potential energy
stored energy
kinetic energy
energy in motion
1st law of thermodynamics
states that energy is neither created nor destroyed, but instead it is only transferred (converted) from one form to another
2nd law of thermodynamics
states that every energy transfer that takes place results in a greater amount of disorder (entropy) in the universe
entropy
the measure of the amount of disorder in a system
heat
the most disordered form of energy
endergonic
uphill reactions going against entropy and require energy
exergonic
downhill reactions, those increasing entropy, give off energy and are termed exergonic
chemical energy
the energy stored in covalent bonds holding molecules together
chemical reaction
when bonds of a
molecule are altered
ATP
the most important energy transfer molecule in all living organisms
ATP
the energy currency of the cell
coupled reactions
when exergonic reactions release energy and endergonic reactions use the energy
Metabolism
the set of all chemical reactions taking place in an organism in order to maintain life
Anabolic
build up molecules
Catabolic
break down molecules
calalyst
molecule that helps chemical reactions occur(catalysts are never used up in reactions they take part in and are neither products or reactants)
enzyme
is a protein that catalyzes (speeds up) a chemical reaction
substrate
molecules that an enzyme transforms
active site
where the substrate binds to an enzyme at a very specific region of the protein
enzymes
lower the energy of activation of a chemical reaction
coenzymes
what facilitates a substrate binding(helper molecules other than proteins that facilitate the work of enzymes by binding them)
vitamins
also known as enzymes are reusable
metabolic pathway
when several enzyme work together to catalyze a multi-step reaction and it is more efficient if the enzymes are in more proximity
enzyme regulation
accomplished by changing the number of available enzymes (making more or removing existing enzymes
and allosteric regulation: modifying the effectiveness of an enzyme by changing its shape with reactants
pH and temp
both affect the shape of the enzyme and if the shape changes it can no longer function properly
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