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31 terms

Cells (Part 2): Mitosis & Meiosis

STUDY
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Why do cells divide?
-Growth
-Repair/Replacement
-Reproduction (unicellular organisms)
Cell Cycle
Mitosis
The process of nuclear division.
Interphase
The prep stage for mitosis.

Gap 1: Cell growth (All organelles & cytoplasm double in number)

Synthesis: DNA replication (DNA doubles)

Gap 2: Prep for mitosis (All structures associated with mitosis double)
Interphase
Stages of Mitosis
1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase
Prophase
-Nuclear membrane disappears.
-Spindle forms.
-Chromosomes shorten and thicken to become visible.
Prophase
Metaphase
Chromatids align along the equator (middle) of the spindle.
Metaphase
Anaphase
Chromatids separate and chromosomes move to the opposite poles of the spindle.
Anaphase
Telophase
-Chromosomes lengthen and become thin.
-Spindle disappears.
-Nuclear membrane forms.
Telophase
Cytokinesis
The division of cytoplasm
Cytokinesis in Animal Cells
Cell Furrow or Cleavage Furrow
Cytokinesis in Plant Cells
Cell Plate
How are cancer cells different from healthy cells?
Unlike healthy cells, cancerous cells have lost their ability to control their growth rate and will continue multiplying even after touching other cells.
Cell Cycle
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis

Pneumonic Device: I Passed My Anatomy Test Completely
Meiosis
The process of the formation of gamates (reproductive cells)
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46
Germ Cell
The cell that divides to produce the gametes.
Gamete
A reproductive cell.
Male gamete
Sperm
Female gamete
Egg
Number of chromosomes in a germ cell
46
Number of chromosomes in a gamete
23
Zygote
Fertilized egg
Polar Bodies
Small cells produces and discarded due to too little cytoplasm during formation of female gamete
Stages of Meiosis
-Interphase
-Prophase 1
-Metaphase 1
-Anaphase 1
-Telophase 1
-NO INTERPHASE 2 (No 2nd DNA replication)
-Prophase 2
-Metaphase 2
-Anaphase 2
-Telophase 2
Distinguish between Mitosis & Meiosis
Mitosis: 1 division, creates 2 cells identical to the original (parent) cell with 46 chromosomes in humans, creates body (somatic) cells

Meiosis: 2 divisions, creates 4 cells with half the genetic information as the original (parent) cell with 23 chromosomes, creates reproductive cells (gametes: egg & sperm)