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the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery)


a wearing down to weaken or destroy


the act of convening

Articles of Confederation

a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states

Electoral College

the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president


the freeing of slaves


a member of a former political party in the United States that favored a strong centralized federal government


A person who supported the British during the American Revolution

Manumission of slaves

the act of a slave owner freeing their slaves

Popular sovereignty

The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government

public virtue

Meant, to the revolutionary generation, patriotism and the willingness of a free and independent people to subordinate their interests to the common good and even to die for their country


rebels who followed Daniel Shays in Shays Rebellion; rebel of debters who states weren't helping

sovereign power

the individual or institution in a political system whose decisions are binding and unable to be overturned by other individuals or institutions

Alexander Hamilton

1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.

Baron van Steuben

He whipped the colonial army into shape. He greatly helped the cause for independence by providing desperately needed assistance to the soldiers.

Benedict Arnold

Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause.

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.

Francois de Grasse

He is best known for his command of the French fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake, which led directly to the British surrender at Yorktown.

Elizabeth Freeman

first enslaved African American to be free by a constitution (Massachusetts 1780)

James Madison

4th President of the United States, member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)

John Madison

The three men who wrote The Federalist Papers.

John Burgoyne

British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777 (1722-1792)

John Carroll

Jesuit priest from Maryland, became first Catholic bishop in the US in 1790.

Joseph Brant

Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution.

Lord Cornwallis

the commander of British troops in the South, best known for his defeat at the Battle of Yorktown

Nathaniel Greene

Quaker-raised American general who employed tactics of fighting and then drawing back to recover, then attacking again. Defeated Cornwallis by thus "fighting Quaker".

Richard & William Howe

British generals whose mistakes led to British defeat in the American Revolution

Robert Morris

leader of the American Revolution who signed the Declaration of Independence and raised money for the Continental Army (1734-1806)

Thomas Jefferson

3rd President of the United States, chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743-1826)

Massachusetts Bill of Rights

1780, declaration of the rights of the people MA; proclaimed all people were born "free and equal"

Protestant Episcopal Church

New name for the Anglican Church after it was disestablished and de-Anglicized in Virginia and elsewhere

Rodrigue Hortalez et compagnie

French gave Americans millions of pounds of gunpowder and ammunition under this Portuguese company

Spanish dollar

silver coin the US dollar was modeled after

3/5 compromise

the decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress

Newburgh, New York

the headquarters of the Continental Army from March, 1782 until the latter part of 1783. While the army was camped here, some of its senior officers began a conspiracy to overthrow the government. General George Washington was able to persuade his officers to stay loyal to him; army disbanded here in 1783

Battle of Trenton

The Americans surprised the Hessian troops guarding Trenton and took most of them prisoner; the Americans won.

Battle of Princeton

A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they suprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.

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