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Ap human unit 6 vocab
Terms in this set (65)
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market
The geographical situation in which something occurs; the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop
The encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along the desert margins, where plant cover and souls are threatened by desiccation- through overuse, in party by humans and their domestic animals, and, possibly, in part because of inexorable shifts in the Earth's environmental zones
With respect to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare
When a poorer country ties the value of its currency to that of a wealthier country, or when it abandons its. Urgency and adopts the wealthier country's currency as its own
Export processing zones (EPZs)
Zones established by many countries in the periphery and semi-periphery where they offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to attract foreign trade and investment
The legal economy that is taxed and monitored by a government and is included in a government's Gross National Product (GNP); as opposed to an informal economy
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The total value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given year
Gross national income (GNI)
calculates the monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income recieved from investments outside the country
Gross national product (GNP)
The total value of all goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year. It includes all goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country, whether or not they are located within the country
Informal economy (informal sector)
Economic activity that is neither taxed not monitored by s government; and is not included in that governments GNP; as opposed to a formal economy.
Island of development
Place built up by a government of corporation to attract foreign investment and which had relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
Vectored disease spread by mosquitoes that carry the malaria in the salavia and which kills approximately 150,000 children in the global periphery each month
The term given to zones in northern Mexico with factories supplying manufactured goods to the U.S. Market. The low-wage workers in UR primarily foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and/or raw materials and then export finished goods
Program that provides small loans to poor people, especially women, to encourage development of small businesses
Modernization model(modernization theory
A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. Theory/model maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption
The entrenchment of the colonel order, such as trade and investment, under a new guise
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
International organizations that operate outside of the formal political arena but that are nevertheless influential in spearheading international initiatives on social, economic, and environmental issues
North American free trade agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. In December, 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994, to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries
Per capita GNI
The GNP of a given country divided by its population
Special economic zones (SEZ)
Specific area within a country in which tac incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
Structural adjustment loans
Loans granted by international financial institutions such as the world bank and the International Monetary Fund to countries in the periphery and the semi-periphery in exchange for certain economic and governmental reforms in that country (e.g. Privatization of certain government entities and opening the country to foreign trade and investment)
A general term for a model of economic development that treated economic disparities among countries it regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system
With reference to Immanuel Wallerstein's world-systems theory, the division of the world into the core, the periphery, and the semi-periphery as a means to help explain the interconnections between places in the global economy
When a family sends a child of an adult to a ma of recruited in homes that the ma or recruiter will send money, and the family member will earn money to send home
A disease carried from one host to another. G an intermediate host
Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein's and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably links to the economic activities of the developed world
A recent intellectual movement concerned with examining the enduring impacts of colonialism, not just in economic and political relations (the focus of neocolonialism), but especially in cultural terms. Post colonial studies examine the ways in which basic concepts of culture and forms of cultural interaction continue to be shaped by the hegemonic ideas and practices of colonialsm
The negative effects on one region that result from economic growth within another region
Human development index (HDI)
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
a line that divides the North and the South. It shows the divide between the more developed regions and the less developed regions.
Right to work
Laws preventing a union and a company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment.
the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers.
Newly industrialized country
Historically less-developed countries that has experienced significant economic growth- South Korea, Mexico, Brazil.
Gender empowerment index
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled la or looks and technological and financial amenities
A location along a transport flute where golds must be transferred from one carried carrier to another. In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are Unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller river boats for inland distribution
The process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition
Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch go a service economy and go work through a period of high unemployment
The effect of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance, the less the interaction
A highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor. Named after automobile producer Henry Ford, Fordist production features assembly-line production of standardized components for mass consumption
Friction of distance
The increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
Global division of labor
Phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world, made possible by te comrade ion of time and space through innovation in communication and transportation systems
The term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialized in late-eighteenth-century Europe
Places where gwo or more modes of transportation meet (including air, road, rail, barge, and ship)
Method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production, planning yhat what they need for longer-term production will arrive when needed
Least cost theory
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which tr location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. The agricultural location theory contained in the Von Thünen model is a leading example.
Theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base
Either reference to production, to outsource to a third party located outside of the country
With reference to production, to turn k er part of in total a third party
World economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass-produced; instead, production had been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world and bringing places closer together in time and Sālve than would have been imaginable at the beginning of the twentieth century
Primary industrial regions
Western and Central Europe; eastern North America; Russia and Ukraine; and Eastern Asia, rach of which consists of one or more vote areas of industrial development with subsidiary clusters
The South and Southwest regions of the U.S.
Centers or bodes of high-technology research and activity around which a high-technology corridor is sometimes established
Costs that change directly with the amount of production (e.g. Energy supply and labor costs)
Areas along or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to the research, developing, and sale of high technology products. These areas develop because of the networking and synergistic advantages of concentrating high-technology enterprises in close proximity to one another. "Silicon Valley" is a prime example of a high-technology corridor in the U.S.
an urban center with certain attributes that, if augmented by a measure of investment support, will stimulate regional economic development in its hinterland
A form of tourism, based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders, that aims to provide an experience of nature or culture in an environmentally sustainable way.
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the in
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Old Asian tigers
Manufacturing Redevelopment Period was from 1950s-1970s. Foreign and programs such as the Macarthur Plan were the source of development funding.
New Asian tigers
Foreign direct investment (FDI) were the main source of development funding. Manufacturing developmental period was from 1980s-1990s until the 1997 Asian Economic Crisis.
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