APES Test- Energy and Fossil Fuels
Terms in this set (104)
strength of a force
can be measured by how much it accelerates an object
force times distance
ability to do work
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed but is always conserved.
the science that keeps track of energy as it undergoes various transformation from one type to another
stored energy (fat in your body)
related to the forces binding the nuclei of atoms
when the speed is greatest, and one no potential energy remains; energy of motion
friction slows the swing, energy from random motion of atoms
availability of the energy to perform work
High quality of work vs. low quality of work
high is more easily converted to work and low is the more difficult is to convert to work.
second law of thermodynamics
energy always tends to go from a more usable form (higher-quality) to a less usable form (lower-quality)
when you use energy
you lower its quality
two fundamental types of energy efficiencies are derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics
first law of efficiency
second law of efficiency
first law of efficiency
deals with the amount of energy without any consideration of quality or availability of the energy
what is the first law efficiency calculated as?
the ratio of the amount of energy supplied delivered where it is needed to the amount of energy supplied to meet that need.
what are expressions for efficiencies given as?
fractions; multiplying the fraction by 100 making it a percentage
why are first-law efficiencies misleading?
high value suggests that little can be done to save energy through additional improvements in efficiency
Second law efficiencies
addresses the problem of the first; refers to how well matched the energy end use is with the quality of the energy source.
Why are values of second-law efficiency important?
low values indicate where improvements in energy technology and planning may save significant amounts of high-energy
what does the second law of thermodynamics tell us
whether the energy quality is appropriate to task
generating plant which produces work from heat
where do most of the electricity generated in the world today comes from?
heat engines that use nuclear fuel, coal, gas, and other fuels
maximum possible efficiency of a heat engine
the amount of waste heat is
twice the actual electric power produced
once energy is produced
the electricity is fed into the grid, which is a network of power lines, or the distribution system. eventually reaches homes, shops, etc.
as electricity moves through the grid
there are losses; the wires that transport electricity have a natural resistance to electrical flow.
this resistance converts some of the electrical energy in the transmission lines to heat energy, which is radiated into the environment surrounding the lines
What is there a direct relationship of?
a country's standard of living (as measured by gross national product) and energy consumption per capita.
what needs to occur in the next 30 years?
both developed and developing countries will need to find innovative ways to obtain energy. affluence may be as related to more efficient use of a wider variety of energy sources as to total energy consumption
approximately 90% of the energy consumed in the US is produced petroleum, natural gas, and coal (organic origin ) forms of stored solar energy
where are fossil fuels formed?
produced from plant and animal material and are forms of stored solar energy that are part of our geologic resource base, essentially nonrenewable
alternative energy resources
(geothermal, nuclear, hydropower, and solar) designates these as sources that might replaces fossil fuels in the future
Solar and wind; resources not depleted by consumption
How could the shift to alternative energy sources be accelerated?
as a result of concern over potential environmental effects of burning fossil fossils
One definite fact is certain
fossil fuels are finite; although it took millions years to form, they have been consumed in only a few hundred years of human history
What three fossil fuels are completely dependent on?
coal, natural gas, petroleum,
what are most of the losses related to?
the production of electricity and to transportation occur through the use of heat engines, which produce waste heat that is lost to the environment
consumption of energy is fairly evenly distributed in what three sectors?
residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation
what does the US department of energy forecasts show?
the dependence on fossil fuels and imported oil and gas will continue through 2030 if energy use practices do not change significantly
what measures are taken to change patterns of energy consumption
conservation, increased energy, and cogeneration
conservation of energy
refers simply to getting by with less demand for energy, this has to do with adjusting our energy needs and uses to minimize the amount of high-quality energy necessary to accomplish a given task.
Increased energy efficiency
involves designing equipment to yield more energy output from a given amount of input energy (first-law efficiency) or better matches between energy source and end use (second law efficiency)
number of processes designed to capture and use waste heat rather than simply release it into the atmosphere, water, or other parts of the environment as a thermal pollutant (ex: natural gas combined cycle power plant)
natural gas combined cycle power plant
produces electricity in two ways: gas cycle and steam cycle
the natural gas fuel is burned in a gas turbine to produce electricity
hot exhaust from the gas turbine is used to create steam that is fed into a steam generator to produce additional electricity
why is energy conservation particularly attractive?
because it provides more that a one-to-one savings.
what is the best approach to energy conservation for buildings?
insulation, caulking, weather-stripping, installation of window coverings and storm windows, and regular maintenance
why do we have higher productivity with less energy use?
the more industries are using cogeneration and more energy efficient machinery, such as motors and pumps designed to use less energy.
what is a potentially effective method of conserving energy?
to change out behavior by using less energy; which involve our values and choices we make to act at a local level to address global environmental problems
what was the first national energy policy statement in over 10 years?
the energy policy act of 2005
6 provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005
1. promote conventional energy course
2. promote nuclear power
3. encourage alternative energy
4. promote conservation measures
5. promote research
6. provides for energy infrastructure
what did the energy policy act of 2005 initiate?
a new round of debate on the future of US energy policy
finding greater amount of fossil fuels and building larger power plants; continuing the past emphasis on the quantity of energy we use. requires no new thinking, no realignment of PES conditions
according to hard path proponents, we should
1. let energy industry develop the available energy resources and let industry free from gov. regulations providing a steady supply of energy
amory lewis defined it as energy alternatives that emphasize energy quality, are renewable, are flexible, and are environmentally more benign than those of the hard paths
integrated energy management
recognizes that no single energy source can provide all the energy required by the various countries of the world.
sustainable energy development
a basic goal of integrated energy management is to implement reliable sources of energy, ensure future generations inherit a quality environment, and not cause harm to environment
a good energy plan is
part of an aggressive environmental policy with the goal of producing a quality environment for future generations
a good plan should include what characteristics
-sustainable energy development
-aggressive energy efficiency
-diversity and integration of energy sources
-balance between economic health and environment
-use second law efficiencies as an energy policy
smaller, distributed systems for production of electricity
is the time when one-half of earth's oil in terms of rate of discovery; the point when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached and at which the rate of production continues to decline
is oil sustainable?
no, oil is being rapidly consumed relative to new resources being found
what is happen when peak production occurs and demand increases?
a gap between production and demand will result
what will happen if demand exceeds supply?
the cost will increase
what are the major fossil fuels?
crude oil, natural gas, and coal
they are our primary energy sources
crude oil and natural gas
derived from organic materials that were buried with marine of lake sediments in depositional basins
source material for oil and gas in fine-grained, organic rich sediment buried where subjected to increased heat and pressure
is coarser grained and relatively porous rock (sandstone and limestone)
oil and gas fields from which we extract resources where the natural upward migration of the oil gas to the surface is interrupted or blocked
rock that helps form the trap is usually a very fine-grained sedimentary rock, such as shale, which is composed of silt and clay sized particles; a necessary part of oil trap. Impermeable rock such as shale or clay that keeps oil and gas from escaping at the surface
what are examples of favorable rock structures?
anticline or a fault rock along which displacement has occurred.
simply pumping the oil from wells but this method can recover only 25% of the petroleum in the reservoir.
- Increase the amount recovered to about 60%
- Steam, water, or chemicals injected into the reservoir to push oil towards wells
Next to water, what is the most abundant
fluid in the upper crust?
oil, concentrated in a few fields
Use more than we produce leads to a trade imbalance
When will we reach peak production?
- Likely to be between 2020-2050
- Will have to adjust to potential changes in lifestyle and economies in a post-petroleum era
Argument that we are head toward a
We are approaching the time when approximately 50% of the total crude oil available from transitional oil fields will have been consumed.
Proven reserves are about 1.2 trillion barrels. World consumption is quickly using what is left.
Only begun to utilize this resource (transported by pipelines) Considered a clean fuel; Produces fewer pollutants than burning oil or coal; Could be a transition fuel to alternative energy
Environmental Effects of Oil and
Recovery, refining, and use of oil and natural gas cause well documented environmental problems
(Air and water pollution, acid rain, and global warming)
Possible environmental impacts on land
include: Land use (for wells, roads, pipelines) and Pollution of surface waters and groundwater from: leaks from broken pipes or tanks containing oil, Accidental release of air pollutants, such as hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide (a toxic gas), Land subsidence (sinking) as oil and gas are withdrawn.
Accidental spills and slow leaks; Over years large amount of hydrocarbons released, polluting soil and ground water
Variety of chemicals used in the industrial process which have the potential to pollute.
Delivery and Use
Crude oil mostly transported on land by pipelines and across the ocean in tankers (Both have danger of oil spill)
Air pollution most serious impact associated with use (burning) Contributes to urban smog
Partially decomposed vegetation, when buried in a sedimentary environment, may be slowly transformed into the solid, brittle, carbonaceous rock. (Most abundant fossil fuel)
In US, how much of the thousands of sq miles is disturbed by coal mining
Only about half reclaimed; The process of restoring and improving disturbed land, often by reforming the surface and replanting vegetation.
acid mine drainage
Pollution caused when sulfuric acid and dangerous dissolved materials such as lead, arsenic, and cadmium wash from coal and metal mines into nearby lakes and streams
an approach to managing coal resources and reducing pollution through buying, selling, and trading of allowances to emit pollutants from burning coal; idea is to control pollution by controlling the number of allowances issued
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)
Wildlife refuge on the north slope of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates that the refuge contains about 3 billion bbl of recoverable oil; currently a highly debated issue whether or not we should drill there
a solid, hard black substance that burns and gives off heat. It is composed mostly of carbon and is formed from partly decayed vegetable matter under great pressure and heat in the earth; one of the world's most abundant fossil fuels and is classified according to its energy content as well as its carbon and sulfur content
naturally occurring petroleum, normally pumped from wells in oil fields; refinement of crude oil produces most of the petroleum products we use today
the process of heating a material such as oil shale in the absence of air to remove the liquid and gaseous fuels (synfuels)
to get the last bits of oil from an oil feild by injecting steam, water, or chemicals such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas to help push the oil toward the wells; increases the amount of petroleum recovery in a reservoir to about 60%
a hydrocarbon deposit, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time and used for fuel
a process of petroleum refining, by which a chemical mixture such as petroleum is separated into its components depending on the different boiling points of components
a white ice-like compound made up of molecules of methane gas trapped in "cages" of frozen water in the sediments of the deep seafloor
naturally occurring gaseous hydrocarbon (predominantly methane) generally produced in association with crude oil or from gas wells; an important efficient and clean-burning fuel commonly used in homes and industry
fine-grained sedimentary rock containing organic material known as kerogen; on distillation, it yields significant amounts of hydrocarbons, including oil
geologic structure that allows for significant amounts of oil and gas to accumulate
the process of returning land to its original condition after mining is completed
process of removing sulfur from gases emitted from power plants burning coal; the gases are usually treated with a lime and limestone slurry; the sulfur oxides react with the calcium to form insoluble calcium sulfides and sulfates which can be collected and disposed
surface mining in which the overlying layer of rock and soil is stripped off to reach the resource; they are some of the largest excavations caused by people in the world
the sinking, settling, or otherwise lowering of parts of the Earth's crust as a result of the loss of support from underlying water, soils, or strata
synthetic fuels, which may be liquid or gaseous, derived from solid fuels, such as oil from kerogen in oil shale, or oil and gas from coal
sedimentary rocks or sands impregnated with tar oil, asphalt, or bitumen
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