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Terms in this set (23)
The central nervous system is made up of the _____ and _______
brain and spinal cord
__________ is the liquid in which the brain and spinal cord flot, protecting them from bumps and bruises, like a shock-absorption system.
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
In most of the body, the walls of capillaries have small openings that let chemicals pass from the blood into the cells of other tissues. Not in the brain. The ________________ prevents many toxic substances from getting into the brain.
Blood-brain Barrier (BBB)
In the brain, _____________ sensory areas begin processing sensory information, while ________ areas do the next step: perceiving, learning, remembering, and planning.
Generally speaking, information from three of the senses- Vision, audition, and somatosensation- travel to the ________ side of the brain, while smell and taste travel to the __________ side of the brain.
The two hemispheres of the brain communicate with each other, but some functions are _________, which means they are performed primarily by one side of the brain.
The __________ receives and integrates sensory information, and assists other parts of the brain in controlling movement, but, more importantly, it serves as a relay station to the rest of the cortex.
The _____________ control slow movements, large muscles, and learning skilled movements. Neurons here are degenerated by Parkinson's diseases.
In the limbic system, the ________ is involved in spatial and episodic memory, while the __________ affects emotional behavior and controls fight or flight reactions.
________________ is the process of regulating important physiological characteristics (eg. body temperature, blood pressure, hydration, and nutrition) at optimal levels.
The hypothalamus controls the _______ gland, which is the "master-gland" for hormones.
________ are chemicals, similar to neurotransmitters, that produce effects by traveling through the blood stream and stimulating receptors on target cells. They act over much longer distances than neurotransmitters do.
In ______________, electrodes are placed on the scalp that record patterns of electrical brain potentials, while in ____________________, a recording device detects tiny magnetic field changes that accompany action potentials in the cerebral cortex.
____________ are branch-like growths attached to the body of a neuron which function primarily to receive messages from other neurons.
____________ is the collective name for various cells in the brain that can form fibers that guide developing neurons into the correct place, can make chemicals that neurons need or take away harmful chemicals, or can make myelin to protect the neurons' axons, to name a few of their functions.
During resting potential, the inside of the neuron is __________ mV relative to what's outside the neuron (the extracellular fluid).
An _______________ is a special protein molecule located in the membrane of the cell that controls the entry or exit of a particular ions.
After neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites, the presynaptic cell begins a process of recycling (taking back) those neurotransmitters called ____________.
_____________ is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, while __________ is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
________________ is the primary neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons. It is secreted onto muscle cells (and onto other neurons).
_____________ is a neurotransmitter that is very important for movement, attention, learning and reward and has therefore been heavily implicated in brain processes related to addiction.
The neurotransmitter _____________ has complex behavioral effects in humans. It regulates pain and REM sleep and is very important in depression, anxiety disorders, and Obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Endogenous ___________ receptors are EVERYWHERE in the brain. They respond to a chemical called THC, which affects concentration, memory, and perception, among other processes.
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