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external respiration

exchange of gases between air and blood

internal respiration

transport/exchange of gases from blood to tissues

cellular (aerobic) respiration

using O₂ to produce ATP within cells


air sacs


smaller airways without cartilage, but have smooth muscle

tidal volume

amount of air moved in 1 relaxed breath (500 mL in adults)

vital capacity

maximum amount exhaled after a maximum inhalation (about 4800 mL; 10x the tidal volume)

residual volume

amount of air that always remains in the lungs (1200 mL)

total lung capacity

maximum amount of air lungs can hold (6 liters)

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