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Ecology CH 11
Terms in this set (26)
Populations exhibit a wide range of growth patterns
exponential & logistic growth, fluctuations and regular cycles.
One population may exhibit ______ growth patterns
at different points in time
Logistic growth assumes that?
No matter the year:
Carry capacity (K) stays the same and thus
at a specific N, there is 1birth rate and 1 death rate
(determined by their proximity to K) and they will stay the same from year to year.
Is K typically constant?
No, and thus N fluctuates around
an average value of K as it tries to hit a moving target
Thus a range of birth/death rates are possible at any given N depending on?
K for that point in time
Some populations exhibit regular periodic fluctuations (i.e. cycles). This may be due to?
resource availability, predator abundance, delayed density dependence, parasite abundance
A Δ in pop. density results in a Δ in birth & death rates. Delay in the effect density has on pop growth. i.e. A Δ in pop density causes a Δ in birth or death rates in the future
The birth rate now is not determined by the density and resources now but by?
but by the density and resources prior to becoming pregnant
predators reproduce ___ than prey
The predator birth rate now is not determined by
the predator density and prey availability now but by?
the predator density and prey availability prior to becoming pregnant
The logistic equation can be modified to include?
How big τau (τ) is affects ?
the population growth pattern seen
Cyclic behavior depends on ?
both r and τ
Small r and/or small tau =
logistic growth pattern
Moderate r and/or moderate tau =
oscillations around K that decrease over time (damped)
High r and/or high tau =
indefinite oscillations around K
Very large fluctuations
(due to large r and/or tau)
can result in?
do not allow N to ____since the last ↓
so can gradually reduce N
and result in?
Small Populations are more vulnerable to extinction because?
since small fluctuations can result in zero individuals
ENVIRONMENTAL stochasticity could lead to
Variability in population size (N)
due to environmentally caused
yearly fluctuation in survival (Sx) & fecundity (Fx) probabilities. change from year to year
DEMOGRAPHIC stochasticity could lead to
Chance events lead to variability in population size (N)
even if survival (Sx) & fecundity (Fx) probabilities
do not change from year to year
genetic drift in which chance events affect allele frequencies but may not affect?
Small populations are also vulnerable to _______
causing further decline in population size
In logistic growth we predict that
a lowered density leads to
an increased _______________
But if the population gets too small then individuals can't find ____ and Schooling or herding organisms can't
effectively ____ themselves
population growth rate
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