chemical building blocks of cells

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molecules
a substance made when two or more atoms combine.
Compounds
Molecules made of different kinds of atoms.
Chemical building blocks of cells
Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, ATP, and nucleic acids.
Molecules made in living things are usually made up of
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
Proteins
Almost all life processes of cells involve proteins. They are large molecules that are made up of smaller molecules called amino acids. Organisms break down the proteins in food to supply their cells with amino acids. Proteins have many different functions. Some proteins form structures that are easy to see such as spider webs, hair, horns, and feathers. Other proteins are small and help cells do their jobs. Some proteins protect cells
Hemoglobin
A type of protein found in red blood cells that binds to oxygen to deliver and release oxygen throughout the body.
enzymes
proteins that start or speed up chemical reactions in cells.
Carbohydrates
Molecules made up of sugars. Cells use carbohydrates as a source of energy and for energy storage. An organism's cells break down carbohydrates to release the energy stored in them.
Simple Carbohydrates
Made up of one or a few sugar molecules. Table sugar and sugar in fruits are examples of simple carbohydrates.
Complex Carbohydrates
An organism's extra sugar can be stored as complex carbohydrates. They are made up of hundreds of sugar molecules.
Starch
Plants store extra sugar as starch. When you eat something containing starch your body breaks down the complex carbohydrate and releases the stored energy.
Lipids
compounds that cant mix with water. They can sometimes store energy or form the membrane of the cells.
Phospholipids
Molecules that form much of the cell membrane. The head of the phospholipid is attracted to water the tail is not. When phospholipids are in water the tails come together and the heads face into the water.
Fats and Oils
Lipids that store energy. When an organism has used up most of its carbohydrates, it can get energy from these lipids. Fats and oils are almost the same but at room temperature most fats are solid and most oils are lipids. Plants mostly store lipids as oil and animals normally store lipids as fat.
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate is an important molecule. It is the major energy-carrying molecule in the cell. The energy in carbohydrates & lipids must be transferred to ATP, which then provides fuel for cellular activities.
Nucleic Acids
Sometimes called the blueprints of life because they have all the information needed for a cell to make proteins. They are large molecules made up of molecules called nucleotides. A nucleic acid may have thousands of nucleotides. The order of those nucleotides stores information.
DNA
A nucleic acid that is like a recipe book entitled how to make protiens. When a cell needs to make a certain protien, it gets the information from the order of nucleotides in DNA. This order of nucleotides tells the cell the order of the amino acids that are linked together to make that protien.