BPK 143 midterm
Terms in this set (280)
what is genotype?
describes the genetic constitution of an individual
what is phenotype?
of an individual organism describes one of its measurable traits or characteristics
ex. blue eyes or aggressive behaviour
how are phenotypes controlled?
- by individual's genes
-environmental factors (ex. language)
relationship between genotype and phenotype?
genotype + environment = phenotype
is fitness level a phenotype or a genotype?
phenotype that is influenced by both an individuals genetics and his or her environment.
is the study of heritable changes in phenotype (gene expression) caused by mechanisms other than changes in underlying DNA sequence
has there been epigenetic adaptation to sedentary lifestyles?
evidence says not
what two factors have a profound impact on your response to an exercise program or normal physiological function?
ability to carry out daily tasks with visor and altertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies
what are the five components of fitness?
- cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance
- muscular strength
- muscular endurance
- body composition
considered health-realted components
what are some sport specific components?
what are the most common causes of back injuries (5)?
- poorly conditioned muscles
- muscles imbalances in the trunk
- inflexibility in muscles crossing the shoulders and hips
- poor lifting technique
- poor motor control of the spinal musculature
do people with back problems have more problems with extensor strength or flexor strength
weaker extensor strength
what is the best type of exercise for seniors to do in order to prevent falls?
(balance and strength training)
ability of body systems to gather, process and deliver oxygen
stamina (muscular endurance)?
the ability of the muscles to work over long periods of against sub-maximal loads
the ability of a muscular unit or combination of muscular units to apply force (maximum force)
the ability to optimize the race of motion at a given joint
the ability of a muscular unit or combination of muscle units to apply force in a minimum time
speed is the rate of change in position
the ability to combine several distinct movement patterns into a singular distinct movement
the ability to minimize transition time from one movement patterns into another
the ability to control the placement of the body's centre of gravity in relation to its support base
the ability to control movement in a given direction or at a given intensity
what are some of the physical skills that your develop during training?
physical skills that your develop through training and practice?
physical skills that you develop though practice?
what is the leading cause of death in north america?
a combination of health disorders that increase the risk of developing CVD, stroke, hypertension and diabetes
what disorders do you have with metabolism syndrome?
- obesity, particularly large amounts of deep abdominal fat content
- elevated levels of blood fat (triglycerides) and low levels of high-density lipoproteins
- resistance to insulin
how many people does metabolic syndrome affect?
1 in 5
prevalence increases with age
what is the female and male life expectancy?
what is the healthy life expectancy of male and females?
what is the top cause of death?
ischaemic heart disease
how much exercise should you get a week for optimal health?
3-5 per week
absence of disease
what two things did runners age 50 experience compared to non runners of the same age?
less musculoskeletal disability
better cardiovascular fitness
what can flexibility and strength prevent?
prevent back pain and other injuries
weight -lifting and running can prevent?
osteoporosis (fragile bones)
what is the recommended amount of exercise for children and adolescents
60 mins of physical activity every day
what is open window?
period where the activity of natural killer cells is reduced
-the larger the open window, the greater chance of infection
compare the health of populations as they present themselves without any manipulation
criteria for a epidemiological study?
1. association between exercise and health must be repeatable (reliable)
2. the association between exercise and health must be strong
3. the association between exercise and health must be logical
4. other obvious factors (variables must be shown not to be the case of the association
what kind of change is the most successful when becoming more fit?
the target behaviour approach- succeed in that one change before changing any additional behaviours
what is the most common mistake and most common cause of injury?
too much too soon
what does SMART stand for?
any activity about resting levels. such as going for a walk or gardening
- not necessarily improve fitness levels
a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, such as swimming for 30 minutes three times per week
what is reported as being the biggest obstacle to starting an exercise regime?
refers to a planned program of exercise directed toward improving the functional capacity of a particular bodily system
what 4 principles are important when developing a training program?
- overload principle
- specificity principle
- reversibility principle
- individual differences principle
how can overload be accomplished?
- increase the intensity of exercise while maintaining duration and frequency
- increase the duration of exercise while maintaining intensity and frequency
- increase the frequency of exercise while maintaining intensity and duration
what is FITT?
frequency (how often?)
intensity (how hard?)
time (how long?)
type (which activities?)
what is the most important factor in determining the training effect?
what percentage is the optimum exercise threshold to improve aerobic capacity?
60-70% of she predicted maximal heart rate
what percent is in order to achieve optimal cardiovascular training effect (overload)
70-90% heart rate and keep it for a minimum of 15 mins
what percent should exercise beginners be careful of and why?
higher than 85% of maximal heart rate
increases the probability of musculoskeletal injury
what are some common assessments that you can take during/after exercise to check intensity?
- percentage of maximal heart rate
- heart rate reserve
- rate of perceived exertion
-talk- test method
maximal heart rate method?
what is also known as the heart rate reserve method?
what is the heart rate reserve method?
more accurately reflects the percentage of your aerobic capacity at which you are working
- more accurate
rate of perceived exertion?
heart rate divided by 10
20 = maximal exertion
6=nothing at all
- if breathing is laboured that you cannot carry on a conversation properly, your intensity is too high for a sustained aerobic effort
what is the minimum duration to obtain an optimal cardiovascular training effect?
15 mins at target heart rate
what is the optimal duration of exercise?
what is the SAID principle?
-principles of specificity and overload
- stands for specific adaptions to imposed demands
- states that the demands of an exercise program must be sufficient to force adaption, and the adaptions will be specific to the type of exercise performed
notes about swimming?
-elicits a lower heart rate because it is non-weight-bearing and not performed in upright position
- muscles are able to generate a lot of heat
- water reduces the need of the heart to bring large amounts of cardiac output to skin
delayed onset muscle soreness
physical work capacity?
the ability to tolerate movement without injury and without being very sore the following day
what is the most important component of any fitness program?
what is energy?
the capacity or ability to perform work. energy is required for muscle contraction and other biological works such as digestion, nerve conduction, glandular secretions and so on.
what is power?
the rate of change of energy or how quickly we can perform work
is the rate at which working muscles can produce energy
aerobic energy production simply means producing energy with the use of oxygen
producing energy in the absence of oxygen
what are examples of passive warm-ups?
sitting in sauna
- less effective than active warm-ups
what is the most effective warm-up?
one that is active
consists of general (jogging, dynamic stretching and calisthenics) and specific exercises (specific for sport)
what are the purposes of warming up?
- permits a gradual increase in metabolic requirements, improves cardiorespiratory performance
-increased body temp creates enzyme activity and oxygen activity in skeletal muscles
- prevents high muscle acidity in exercise session
- casuses gradual increase in deep muscle temp (reduces chance of injury)
- improves neural transmission for motor unit recruirement
- lessens danger of inadequate blood flow to heart
-provides psychological prep for sport/event
what is a good cool-down rule?
keep moving until heart rate has dropped below 100 beats per minute
what are the purposes of cooling down?
- maintains the venous return to the heart and brain (reduces likelihood of light-headedness and fainting)
- maintains a large blood supply to the muscle, reduces acidity levels
- hastens the removal of lactate from the working muscles
-reduces cramps and muscle spasms
- allows heart rate, oxygen uptake and body temp to gradually return to resting levels
-reduces conc. of exercise hormones ( can cause exercise disturbances in cardiac rhythm)
what is the highest incidence of heart arrhythmias ( problems with the hearts contractile mechanisms) associated with exercise?
when people just finish exercising and flop to the ground without cooling down
what point of exercise is the most easy to stretch
after working out (during cool down)
what are some common mistakes in training?
- not planning effectively
- not individualizing program
- not keeping a record of training and performance
signs of overuse injuries?
pain in and around joints
when you don't have the motivation to go out and train
symptoms: sudden weight loss, chronic fatigue, insomnia, lack of appetite, increase in morning pulse rate of more than 5 beats per minute
front side of the body
above or near the head
- also known as superior
farthest end from the trunk or head
below also, toward the feet
away from the midline
toward the midline
back side of the body,
- also known as dorsal
closest part nearest the trunk or head
above or near the head
- also known as cranial
how are muscles contracted?
projections (cross-bridges) from one of the protein filaments (myosin) attaching to the other filaments (actin)
- myosin rolls onto actin
- muscle produces force and shortens
(sliding filament theory)
as movement where the joint angle gets smaller
- flexion (arm moves forward and up)
- extension (arm moves back)
- transverse adduction
- transverse abduction
- medial rotation and lateral rotation
movements at elbow?
-ulnar and radial deviation
spine(thoracic and lumbar) movements?
- medial and lateral rotation
flex at knee and extend at hip
flexion at neck
abduction of arm
anterior- flexion and horizontal adduction
posterior- extension, horizontal abduction
extension and adduction of shoulder joint
flexion and horizontal adduction at shoulder joint
flexion at elbow
what is the strongest elbow flexor when forearm is supinated?
strongest when pronated = brachioradialis
brachialis and brachioradialis?
flexion at elbow
extension at elbow joint
adduction and downward rotation of scapula
extension at hip
extension at knee
rectus femoris- flexion at hip
flexion at knee
extension at hip
a muscle that causes the motion of the exercise
ex. biceps in a bicep curl
a muscle that can move the joint opposite to the movement produced by the agonist
ex. triceps in a bicep curl
the primary muscle intended for exercise
a muscle that assists another muscle to accomplish a movement
muscle that contracts with no significant movement to maintain posture of fixate a joint
ex. muscles of the trunk during a back squat contract to stabilize the spine
a bi-articulate muscle that simultaneously shortens at the target joint and lengthens at the adjacent joint with no appreciable difference in length
ex. hamstrings dynamically stabilize the knee and hip during a back squat
a muscle that crosses one joint
a muscle that crosses two joints
a muscle that crosses three joints
number of times an exercise is consecutively performed
maximum number of times an exercise is consecutively performed
number of groups of repetitions performed
amount of weight used, percentage of the one rep maximum, or the effort used during the exercise
number of workouts per week or number of times a muscle group is trained per week
total amount of work performed in a training phase. most common way of determining this is the total number of reps performed in a workout multiplied by the load
weights that are not constrained in frames or other machine set-ups.
ex. dumbbell or barbell exercises
machine based weights?
weights are in frames, usually you pull on a lever connected to the weights via wire, which run over pulleys
what are the 9 ACSM recommendation for resistance training exercise?
1. perform a minimum of 8-10 exercise that train the major muscle group
2. choose compound (multi-joint) exercises which involve more muscle groups with fewer exercises
3/perform one set of 8-12 reps to the point of volitional fatigue
4. perform exercises at least two days per week
5. adhere as closely as possible to the specific exercise techniques
6. performs exercises through a full range motion
7. perform exercises in controlled manner
8. maintain a normal breathing pattern
9. exercise with a training partner
what muscles are used in a leg press?
quads, gluteus maximus, hamstrings
what muscles are used in bench press?
pectorals major, anterior deltoid, triceps
what muscle groups are used with a lat pull-down?
latissimus dorsi, bices, brachialis, rhomboids, trapezius
shoulder press muscles used?
anterior deltoid, trapezius, triceps
where the end segment of the exercised limb is fixed or the end is supporting the weight
ex. back squat
where the end of the segment of the exercised limb is not fixed, or end is not supporting the weight
ex. leg curl
an exercise which allows one to gain motor development or strength in a manner in which it is used in the execution of a particular task
ex. balancing on wobble boards
example of exercises that are free weights?
- back squat
- overhead squat
- bench press
- shoulder press or military press
- biceps curl
example of exercises that involve machines?
example of exercises that are calisthenics?
what should you do during weight training to reduce the chances of injury?
- common sense
- warm up rep with light weight
- avoid holding breath (breathe out during exertion)
- lift from stable base
-dont over arch
-do not round back
- have a spotter for free weights use
-keep core tight
- full range of motion
- dont do too much weight to start off
- apply ice to joints under heavy stress immediately to prevent injury
- work on all muscle groups for balance
what can happen if you hold your breathe during resistance weight training?
- cause significant rise in arterial blood pressure and in workload of heart (dangerous for high BP and heart disease people)
- increase in thoracic pressure, causes decreases venous return to heart
- blood flow to brain reduced may cause dizziness and fainting
-cause valsalva maneuver- forced exhalation against a closed glottis
what does resistance training increase?
- muscular strength
- muscle endurance
-strength of bones
-tensile strength of ligaments and tendons
- thickness of cartilage
- muscle mass (hypertrohpy)
- speed and power
-blood volume and haemoglobin
- muscle enzyme levels
- maximal work capacity
- equalization of muscle development
- capillary density in the muscle
what does resistance training decrease?
- body fat
- stress and tension
- resting heart rate
what does resistance training help?
- prevent injury
- rehabilitate injuries
- improve cardio-respiratory function
- alter metabolism to improve caloric utilization
- facilitate quicker recovery from workouts and competitions
- increase self- image and confidence
- improves appearance
- increases feeling of well-being
- induce fatigue and relaxation
what should you do to reduce any possible risks to strength training?
good safety precautions
well structured work/recovery intervals
what does strength training increase the risk of?
- muscle and tendon injuries
- bone and ligament injuries
- low back injuries
-contact with weight plates causing injury
- large transient increases in systolic blood pressure
-excessive fatigue due to over training
- possible inducement to take ergogenic aids (steroids and creatine monohydrate)
what is erythropoietin?
a hormone that would improve a persons aerobic capacity
muscular strength ?
the greatest amount of force that a muscle group can produce in a single maximal effort
the ability of a muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a light load for an extended period of time
the ability to produce force quickly.
power= work done (force x distance ) per unit time
muscular contraction with no change in length of the muscle
what are some disadvantages of isometric exercises?
- strength is not increases throughout the joints range of motion but its specific to the joint angle at which the training is performed
-does not optimally improve the ability to exert force rapidly
- motivation is poor, difficult to observe progress
-straining-type activities, which involve sustained isometric contractions, greatly increase the resistance to blood flow and cause large increases in arterial blood pressure and workload of the heart
muscular contraction where the tension (force) in the muscle is constant
- more of a constant mass (weight) such as barbell or your body weight
a contraction where the muscle shortens or lengthens at a constant velocity
- mostly done when using machines
muscle is contracting and shortening
- unique to muscle tissue, no other kind of tissue in your body will shorten when stimulated?
- against gravity
when muscle is not only contracting but also lengthening
how are muscle fibres classified?
why are muscle fibres different?
because they have different isoforms (different editions) of proteins that make up the contractile elements, specifically myosin
how many isoforms are found in humans?
what is a motor unit?
a single motor neurone and all of the corresponding muscle fibres it innervates ( causes to contract)
- motor unit activated= all fibres contract
how are skeletal0 muscular motor units classified by?
speed of contraction (fast or slow)
three ways based on metabolic characteristics
- produce 10% more force per unit of cross-sectional area
- contraction and tension development are two or three times faster
- can generate energy rapidly for quick, forceful contractions
- are adapted for prolonged work and are used extensively for aerobic activities
ex. distance running
- contain large conc. of myoglobin ( higher aerobic capacity)
what are the main muscles of antigravity musculature?
- rectus abdominus
- erector spinae
muscle force x perpendicular distance between the line of action of that force and the centre of the joint
where can you generate more torque?
mid-range of a joint angle
advantages of machines?
- making sure your safe is easier
- - provides resistance with movement
- patterns of resistance can be designed
- easier to change weights
advantages of free weights?
- having to stand provides an element of weight bearing exercise
- help stabilize body parts
- more skilled is required to control weights
- involves natrual coordination of several muscles
- program design is greater- most are closed chain exercises
increase in the size of a tissue such as muscle, is believed to be the major mechanism involved in enlarging muscle in response to overload stress
- muscle fibres increase when the size and number of their myofibrils increase
- muscle and connective tissue
increase in the number of cells within a tissue
get smaller with disuse
what body composition changes should you expect following a resistance training program?
- little or no change in body weight
- significant loss of fat
-significant gain in lean body mass
- significant or increase in bone density
- increased thickness and strength in ligaments and tendons
what is the most important factor in strength gains in the early stages of training and early stages of detraining?
why are men stronger than women?
- greater percentage of their body is muscle
- higher levels of testosterone
- faster speed of nervous control of muscle
what happens at age 16 for men and women?
average women are 2/3's as strong as the average male
upper body compared to lower body in strength for men and women?
female upper bodies are 50-60% as strong as boys
female lower body are 70-80% strong as boys
how should you create overload in weight training?
- increase amount of resistance one you can complete the required number of reps with relative ease ( most widely used method)
- increase # of reps using the same weight
- increase rate of work
- increase the volume of work
what should your program consist of?
- fits into your skill level (equipment)
- fit your target major muscle groups
- fit your program needs
- target additional muscle groups
fit your desired time commitment
- do not strength train the same muscle groups on consecutive days too often
- do not exercise the same muscle groups consecutively
-exercise small muscles last
- be safe
momentary muscular failure?
wheen you fail to complete the required movement
- evidence of overload
difference between circuit training and weight training?
usually a fixed amount of time devoted to each exercise and the changeover to another exercise in circuit training
- includes a cardiovascular component
something that is likely to boost human performance
ex. creatine monohydrate (increase in water retention in muscle and reduction in water available for proper blood viscosity)
where deoxygenated blood is pumped from heart through the lungs and oxygenated blood returned back to the heart
where oxygenated blood is pumped from the heart around the rest of the body and deoxygenated blood is returned back to the heart
how does blood from the head and upper extremities and from the trunk and lower extremities return to heart?
through the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava
what is the flow of blood through the body
to the lungs
-oxygenated blood goes through pulmonary veins
-through left atrium
- then into systemic circulation
the amount of blood pumped in one minute by wither the right or left ventricle of the heart
the amount of blood pumped by the left or right ventricle of the heart per beat
the number of heart beats per minute
what is the equation to find cardiac output?
heart rate x stroke volume
what kind of valves do veins have in order to prevent blood flowing backwards?
one way valves
- muscles contract and squeeze veins to get blood back to heart (skeletal muscle pump)
refers to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the cells of an organism and the external environment
is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli (lungs)
is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the cellular level
the diaphragm muscle plus external intercostal muscles contract to increase the volume within the thoracic cavity.
since the thoracic cavity is closed, increase the vol. within the lungs, increase vol. results in decreased pressure
if airway is open, air moves into the alveoli, as the air pressure in the alveoli is no less than air pressure in atmoshpere
the diaphragm plus external intercostal muscles relax to decrease the vol. of the thoracic cavity
as lung elastic tissues recoli, alveoli air pressure becomes greater than atmospheric pressure and air is forced out of the alveoli
volume of air inspired or expired in one minute
volume of air ventilated per breath
number of breaths per minute
equation for minute ventilation?
tidal volume x respiratory frequency
at moderate to heavy workloads, minute ventilation begins to increase out of proportion to workload?
role of red blood cells?
- deliver oxygen to the cells and remove waste carbon dioxide
- integral component on determining your aerobic power
role of white blood cells?
- part of the body's immune system and platelets play a major role in blood clotting mechanisms
which is the proportion of blood composed of blood cells and formed elements
- levels around 40-45% in males and 30-35% in females
-gas exchange between the alveolar-capillary membrane and tissue-capillary membrane
- random motion of molecules from areas of high conc. to areas of low conc.
what percentage of oxygen in blood is carried by red blood cells?
an iron-containing protein that reversibly binds with oxygen molecules
hemoglobin (Hb) + oxygen (o2) <-> oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)
refers to the pressure exerted on the walls of the arteries by blood
- driving force that moves blood through circulatory system
systolic blood pressure?
the pressure on the artery walls when the left ventricle contracts and pushes a bolus of blood through the arteries
(avg. = 120 mm Hg)
(range = 100-140 mm Hg)
diastolic blood pressure?
the pressure in the arteries between ventricular contractions after the bolus of blood has passed through
(range= 60-90 mm Hg)
(avg.= 80 mm Hg)
calculated as systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure. it refers to the additional pressure that is pushing blood through the system during systole (when ventricles contract)
a medical term referring to high blood pressure
- leading cause of many forms of cardiovascular disease
- usu. listed as second only to tobacco smoking as primary cause of heart disease
- if blood pressure is higher than 140/90
mean arterial blood pressure equation ( ohm's law of the heart)?
cardiac output x peripheral resistance
- states the pressure difference between two ends of a blood vessel
during exercise what why is there an increase in blood flow to the working muscles?
-increased blood pressure
- dilation of arterioles in working muscles do to relation of smooth muscles in the wall of arterioles
- decrease in blood flow to other tissues and non working muscles due to contrstictions of arterioles
what 4 places in the body increase blood amount during exercise?
arterial- mixed venous oxygen difference?
how much oxygen is in the arteries and how much is in the blood returned to the heart
VO2= cardiac output (Q) x (a-v)O2diff
high intensity interval training?
is an advanced technique to be used only after a minimum for six weeks of vernal conditioning.
-ex. several maximum 400 metre sprints , with 1-3 minutes of recovery
- increase in stroke volume
maximum oxygen uptake?
is the highest oxygen utilization that can attain during physical work while breathing air at sea level
- how much air you use (l/min)
what are the most important physiological factors that determine VO2 max in a given person?
- ability of heart to pump blood
- oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
- ability of the working muscles to accept a large blood supply
- ability of the muscle cells (fibres) to extract oxygen from the capillary blood and use it to produce energy
what are important factors to look for when it comes to a good endurance athlete?
- anaerobic or lactate threshold ( % of VO2 max used before muscle environment becomes acidic)
- individual variation in mechanical efficiency
changes at rest because of aerobic conditioning?
- hearts weight and volume increases with long term training
- heart rate decreases
- stroke volume increases (no change in cardiac output)
- blood vol. increase by up to 20%
increase in total body hemoglobin content (hemoglobin conc. does not increase)
changes during sub-maximal exercise because of aerobic conditioning?
- heart rate decreases and stroke volume increases
- cardiac output decreases
-oxygen consumption doesn't change or decreases (increase in mechanical efficiency)
- more oxygen available for muscles because of amount of air breathed decreases
changes during maximal exercise because of aerobic conditioning?
- maximal heart rate doesn't change or decreases
-max stroke vol. increases
- max. cardiac output increases
- maximal difference increases
- increase in max oxygen consumption
- endurance performance increases
- max minute ventilation increases
- low pressure of oxygen at altitude, drives body to produce more RBC's
why do some athletes seem to perform worse after training in altitude?
during altitude training not able to train as hard so actually was de-training
- iron deficiency is common in athletes
-imbalance in intake and absorption, need of more RBC's, exercise-induced iron loss
- iron deficiency reduces aerobic performance and recovery
- assoc. with heart disease, stroke, liver damage, diabetes
- aimed to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
- removing blood from athlete, separating the RBC's from that blood and freezing them for re-infusion just prior to competition
- hormone naturally produced by kidneys in response to lower levels of oxygen delivery to kidneys and other organs
-travels through circulatory system to bone marrow, which stimulate production of RBCs
- too much can increase stroke and heart attack
breathing pure oxygen?
- slightly increases the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin
-increase partial pressure of oxygen which increases amount of dissolved oxygen in blood
- effect are short lived
breath right nasal strips?
- strips produce a mild pulling action that opens the nasal passages and reduces nasal airway resistance by 30%
smoking (with nicotine)?
cause partial constriction of bronchioles (increases airway resistance)
-forces respiratory muscle to work harder in order for lungs to ventilate a given vol. of air
the capacity or the ability to perform work
- is required for muscle contraction and other biological work *(ex. digestion)
rate of change of energy or how quickly you can perform work
is the rate at which working muscles can produce energy
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)?
- is only immediate energy source for muscle contraction
-phsophate bonds in ATP are high energy bonds and energy is released when one of the bonds are broken
chemical processes that do not require the presence of oxygen delivered by the blood
processes that do require the presence of oxygen delivered by the blood
referred to as the immediate energy system
- no lactate product in this system
(creatine phosphate or phopho-creatine)
what is ATP broken down into?
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate
- it is broken down during muscle contraction
an anaerobic system and it must use glucose as fuel
- is anaerobic glycolysis
simple sugar that cells use as a source of energy and metabolic intermediate
- accounts for 99% of all sugars circulating in the blood
process of breaking down glucose
form in which humans and other mammals store glucose
- the molecules consists of clusters of glucose molecules attache dot each other
-stored in liver and muscle tissues
where does blood glucose come from ?
comes from digestion of carbohydrates and the breakdown of liver glycogen
what two methods can glucose me made available in the muscle cells for breakdown to lactate?
- glucose molecules pass from the blood through the muscle cell membrane into the cell interior
- the glucose splits from glycogen stores in the muscle cell itself
used when there is enough oxygen present to allow the required ATPs to be produced
what is the name of the cell membrane in the muscle cell?
what gelatine-like substance fills the space between the myofibrils?
- where enzymes for glycolysis are located
where are aerobic ATP production located?
in mitochondria (sub-cellular structures)
powerhouse of cells
- presenc eof adequate supplies of oxygen- can produce energy from carbs, fats and proteins
what happens with pyruvate is converted to acetyl-coenzyme A ?
not shunted to lactate
series of chemical reactions occuring in mitochondria in which carbon dioxide is produced and hydrogen ions and electrons are removed from carbon atoms(oxidation)
- acetyl-CoA molecules pass from the sarcoplasm into the mitochondria, where the enter krebs cycle and electron transport chain
-broken down to CO2 an water
electron transport chain?
hydrogen ions and electrons released during glycolysis and krebs cycle are passed through the ETC and ATP is produced
- electrons and hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water and ATp is resynthesizes
- process requires oxygen, therefore call oxidative phosphorylation
how many molecules of ATP can be produced from one molecule of glycogen?
breakdown of glycogen summarized?
etc + O2 -> CO2 + H2O +ATP
what kind of energy system do you use for short exercise durations (ex. 5 seconds)
what kind of energy system do you use for exercises like 60 seconds?
what kind of energy system do you use for exercises that last over one minute?
what kind of sports consists of training for all energy systems?
excess post-exercise oxygen consumption?
oxygen uptake during recovery, which is in excess of the oxygen uptake normally observed during a rest period of similar duration
- measurably increased rate of O2 uptake following exercise intended to erase the body's oxygen debt
for a period of time you are exercising at a level where your oxygen uptake does not meet exercise requirements
what results in rapid recovery phase?
the replenishment of muscle phosphagen stores (ATP and CP) and reloading hemoglobin and myoglobin with oxygen
refers to the highest intensity of exercise that is not associated with a rise in blood lactate above resting levels
- used interchangeably with onset of blood lactate accumulation
changes due to phosphagen system training?
-increases in resting levels of anaerobic substrates, such as ATP and CP and to lesser extent glycogen content
-increases in the quantity and activity of key enzymes controlling the phosphagen system
-selective hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres
chnages due to glycolytic system training?
-increases in resting levels of anaerobic substrates (ATP,CP,glycogen)
- increases in quantity and activity of key enzymes controlling the anaerobic phase of glucose breakdown
-selective hypertrophy of fast-twitch fibres
-increased ability to tolerate high muscle acidity during all-out exercise , resulting in increased anaerobic exercise capacity
aerobic system changes?
- higher capillary density in trained muscle (greater blood delivery)
- increase in both size and number of mitochondria a(increase in level of system enzymes)
- increase in skeletal muscle myoglobin content
- increases in trained muscles ability to mobilize and oxidize fat
-greater capacity to oxidize carbs in trained muscles
what kind of enzyme is released (leaks) when there is muscle damage
what is DOMS the result of ( delayed onset of muscle soreness)?
and breakdown of connective tissue
what can neurotransmitter depletion cause?
loss of motor skills
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Assessing & Interviewing Clients Study Guide for the ACE PT exam by Premier Training
Fitness for Life, Ch. 3- Cardiorespiratory Endurance
KIN 2504 Exam 2
Exercise Phys Final
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Health 211- seconds half of course
Health 212 midterm 2
Health 211 midterm
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
KIN 143 Midterm
BPK 143: Chapter 1 Study Questions
BPK 143: Chapter 2 Study Questions
BPK 143 - Chapter 2