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Chapter 5 Biology 1
Terms in this set (68)
the process in which one cell, called the parent cell, divides to perform two new cells, referred to as daughter cells
most prokaryotic cells divide by the process of _____ _____.
DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and separation
what are the three steps of binary fission?
the process in which DNA is copied before the cell divides and it results in two identical chromosomes instead of just one. this is necessary so that when the cell divides, each daughter cell will have its own chromosome
the two chromosome separates and move to opposite ends of the cell. this occurs as each copy of DNA attaches to different parts of the cell membrane.
a new plasma membrane starts growing into the center of the cell, and the cytoplasm splits apart, forming two daughter cells. as the cell begins to pull apart, the new and the original chromosomes are separated. the two new daughter cells that result are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell. new cell wall must also form around the two cells.
cell division is more _____ in eukaryotes than prokaryotes.
mitosis and cytokinesis
what are the two major steps when the cell divides?
a multi phase process in which the nucleus of the cell divides. during this process, the nuclear membrane breaks down and later reforms. the chromosomes are also sorted and separated to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes.
during this step, the cytoplasm divides and two daughter cells form.
repeating series of events that a cell goes through during its life, including growth, DNA, synthesis, and cell division.
As you can see, the eukaryotic cell cycle has several phases. The _____ ______(M) actually includes both mitosis and cytokinesis.
the other three phases (G1, S, and G2) are generally grouped together as ________.
G1, S, and G2
interphase can be subdivided into these three phases?
during this phase the cell grows rapidly while performing routine metabolic processes. it also makes proteins needed for DNA replication and copies some of its organelles in preparation for cell division. a cell typically spend most of its life in this phase.
during this phase, the cell's DNA is copied in the process of DNA replication
during this phase, the cell makes final preparation to divide.
The cell cycle is controlled mainly by regulatory _____.
a disease that occurs when the cell cycle is no longer regulated.
a mass of abnormal cells
coiled structures made of DNA and proteins. are the form of the genetic material of a cell during cell division.
during other phases of the cell cycle, DNA is not coiled into chromosomes. instead, it exists as a grainy material called ______.
one of the two identical copies of a chromosome that are joined together at a centromere before a cell divides.
region of sister chromatids where they are joined together.
unit of DNA on a chromosome that is encoded with instructions for a single protein.
Human cells normally have ___ sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent.
23 and 46
There are ___ chromosomes in each set, for a total of ___ chromosomes per cell.
pair of chromosomes that have the same size and shape and contain the same genes
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
what 4 phrases are in mitosis?
first and longest phase of mitosis. chromatin condenses into chromosomes, and the nuclear envelope, or membrane, breaks down.
spindle fibers attach to the centromere of each pair of sister chromatids. the sister chromatids line up at the equator, or center, of the cell. the spindle fibers ensure that sister chromatids will separate and go to different daughter cells when the cell divides.
sister chromatids separate and the centromeres divide. the sister chromatids are pulled part by the shortening of the spindle fibers. one sister chromatid moves to one pole of the cell, and the other sister chromatid moves to the opposite pole. at the end of this stage, each pole of the cell has a complete set of chromosomes
during this stage, the chromosomes begin to uncoil and form chromatin. this prepares the genetic material for directing the metabolic activities of the new cells. the spindle also breaks down, and new nuclear membranes form.
the final stage of cell division in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. during this stage the cytoplasm splits in two and the cell divides. it occurs somewhat in differently in plant and animal cells.
for cytokinesis in ____ cells, the plasma membrane of the parent cell pinches inward along the cell's equator until two daughter cells form.
cytokinesis in ____ cells, is when a cell plate forms along the equator of the parent cell. then, a new plasma membrane and cell wall form along each side of the cell plate.
the two identical copies of chromosomes that DNA is in after replication
cells in this step can't divide until a signal by surrounding cells is sent
(restriction) point of no return.
proteins that regulate progression through cell cycle
cell cycle arrest
when regulatory proteins detect a protein and stop the cell cycle
if the problem is so big that it can't be fixed, it goes through ____ which is programmed cell death.
breaks apart the two cells and moves them away from eachother
involves a single parent. results in genetically identical offspring.
binary fission, fragmentation, and budding
what are the three types of asexual reproduction?
when a parent cell splits into two identical daughter cells of the same size
when a parent organism breaks into pieces and each piece develops into a new organism
when a parent cell forms a bubble like bud. this bud stays attached to the parent cell while it grows and develops. when its fully developed it breaks away to form a new organism.
involves two organisms.
formed in meiosis and are reproductive cells
gametes are _____ cells.
they contain only half the number of chromosomes found in other cells of the organism.
when two gametes unite it is called ______.
the fertilized cell is then referred to as a ______.
a zygote is a ____ cell.
it has twice the number of chromosomes as a gamete.
4, 1, 2
during meiosis, two cell division occur and a total of __ haploid cells are produced. the two cell division are meiosis __ and meiosis __.
- nuclear envelope begins to break down
- chromosomes condense
- centrioles begin to move apart
-spindle begins to form
-homologous chromosomes pair up
-spindle fibers attach to homologous chromosomes
-paired chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
- spindle fibers shorten
- the chromosomes of each homologous pair start to separate from each other
- one chromosomes of each pair move toward the opposite sides of the cells
telophase 1 and cytokinesis
- spindle breaks down
-cytoplasm cell divides
-two haploid daughter cells result
-the nuclear envelope breaks down
-the spindle begins to form in each daughter cell
- centrioles begin to separate
-spindle fibers line up the sister chromatid along the middle
-sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles
telophase 2 and cytokinesis
-spindle breaks down
- new nuclear membranes form
-four haploid cells result
the development of haploid cells into gametes
male gametes are ____.
female gametes are ___.
the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. it results in new combinations of genes on each chromosome.
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