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30 terms

Biology Midterm study-guide

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produce ethanol
Under anaerobic conditions, yeast cells
Endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis
Mechanisms for bringing material into the cell
Sulfur
If an anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium uses hydrogen sulfide as an electron source, the waste product produced is
Diffusion
The random movement of solute from regions of high concentration to regions of lower concentration is called
NADH to NAD
The purpose of fermentation is to recycle
Heat
As energy is converted through various forms, some is continuously lost as
PGAL
A key metabolic intermediate compound that is found in both glycolysis and the Calvin Cycle
gap junctions
In plants, plasmodesmata serve essentially the same function as _______ in animals
Tight cell junctions
_______________ result in a waterproof "seam" between two cells.
aerobic respiration
The reaction C₆H₁₂O₆+6O₂→6CO₂+6H₂O, when it occurs in living cells is known as
glycolysis
The process common to all living organisms, aerobic and anaerobic, is
P680
Photosystem II absorbs photons that are slightly more energetic than photosystem I, but similarly pass this energy to a reaction center pigment called
phagocytosis
The process often thought of as "cell eating" is
more ATP
One of the disadvantages of the C4 pathway is that it requires
saturation
When an enzyme is working at its maximum reaction rate, and the addition of more substrate does not increase the reaction rate, _______ has occurred.
One
For each turn of the Krebs cycle, ____, molecule of ATP equivalents is produced
metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions within an organism is called
Two
A single glucose molecule can drive the Krebs cycle _____ turns
ase
Enzyme names usually end with
cytoplasm
The enzymes catalyzing the reactions of glycolysis occur in the
Chemiosmotic formation of ATP
_________________is common to both aerobic respiration and the light reactions of photosynthesis
a better induced fit
When the substrate is bound to the enzyme, the shape of the enzyme may change slightly, leading to
competitive inhibitor
When an enzyme inhibitor structurally resembles an enzyme's substrate, it is called a
Photosystem II
__________can be used in linear PET, but not cyclic PET
endergonic
Reactions that DO NOT proceed spontaneously because they require energy from an outside source are called
allosteric sites
The sites where molecules other than reactants bind in an enzyme to alter its activity are called
Twelve
_____ revolutions of the C3 cycle are required to produce the net equivalent of sucrose
matrix
The enzymes of the Krebs cycle are located in the
P700
In photosystem I, light energy captured by pigment molecules is passed on to a special pair of chlorophyll molecules called
C4 photosynthsis
The CAM pathway is most similar to