E. histolytica complications of infection are most common in
women and children
E. histolytica risk groups in USA
rural children in SE, homosexual males, recent immigrants, recent world travelers,
E. histolytica - most common causes of death
Colonic perforation and rupture of hepatic abscesses, brain lesions
E. histolytica diagnostic method that is 70 to 90 percent sensitive
What is the second step of the ELISA kit
What is the third step of the ELISA kit
Forth step of ELISA kit?
5th step of ELISA kit
Add Chromogen substrate
6th step of ELISA kit
1st step of ELISA kit
Add serum to ELISA plate
Fecal ELISA is what kind of diagnostic
FECAL ELISA is what ELISA classification?
Which ELISA is specific for E. histolytica, not E. hartmanni, or E. dispar and works with an antibody specific to the binding lectins that cause cytopathology?
Which typical Entamoeba has no cyst stage is found in up to 50 percent of clean mouths and 95 percent of dirty mouths
Type of amoebae most commonly responsible for Primary Amebic Meningo-encephalitis?
N. fowleri (gruberi)
Family of N. fowleri
Schizopyrenidae usually dwell in
soil, sometimes water
Genus of N. fowleri
The amoeba that commonly causes ulcerations of the skin and eyes is in what Family
The amoeba that commonly causes ulcerations of the skin and eyes is in what Genus
Besides N. fowleri what other genus of amoeba may cause PAM
Which Class is composed of animal like flagellates with no chloroplasts
Zoomastigophorea is part of what Subphylum
network of circular DNA (called kDNA) inside a large mitochondrion that contains many copies of the mitochondrial genome. The most common structure is a disk, but they have been observed in other arrangements.
Kinetoplasts are characteristic of what Order
Which family has 7 genera, 5 of which are parasites of insects, and 2 of which infect humans?
Flagella characteristic of the Trypanosomatidae
only 1 on anterior end
What membrane characteristic of the Trypanosomatidae
What is the dark staining base of flagellum characteristic of the Trypanosomatidae called?
What odd cytoskeletal feature is characteristic of the Trypanosomatidae?
peculiar microtubules that extend the length of the cell.
Trypanosomatidae blood form in the definitive host in which the flagellum arises from a posteriorly located kinetoplast and emerges from the side of the body, with an undulating membrane running along the length of the body.
Trypanosomatidae transitional form in the insect gut, flagellum passes under cell membrane for only small part of the cell, kinetosome is located between nucleus and free flagellum
Predominant Trypanosomatidae form found in the gut of insects. Kinetosome and kinetoplast are located at the anterior end adjacent to where the free flagellum extends out of the cell.
are a common morphology during an intracellular lifecycle stage in a mammalian host. All Leishmania have this stage stage of the lifecycle, are particularly small and are among the smallest eukaryotic cells. The flagellum is very short, and does not extend beyond the cell membrane.
Trypanosomatidae in a particular form are not sensitive to cyanide due to an unusual
glycerophosphate oxidase system
Trypanosomatidae ARE sensitive to what drug?
The Trypanosomatidae blood form, ___________, have mitochondria with only a few simple, short tubular cristae
Trypanosomatidae in mammalian blood use only what form of metabolism
anaerobic - glycolysis for ATP production, oxygen to reoxidize NAD
Trypanosomatidae in the insect gut use what form of metabolism
What Trypanosomatidae form are not sensitive to cyanide?
Trypanosomatidae direct infection is characteristic of what parasites from this group
Trypanosomatidae infection form common to Typanosomma brucei, T. vivax and T. congloense, etc, where they are directly innoculated into the blood stream of an intermediate host by the mouth parts of an insect.
Indirect Infection by Innoculation
Trypanosomatidae infection form common to T. lewisi (rats), and T. cruzi (humans), where infective trypanosomes are voided in the feces of feeding bugs which then make their way into punctured skin.
Indirect Infection by contamination
Trypanosoma Lewis definitive host
Trypanosoma Lewis intermediate host/vector
northern rat flea
Trypanosoma Lewis cause of pathology
antigens sticking to rbcs
T. Cruzi causes what disease
South American Trypanosomiasis - Chaga's disease
T. cruzi vector
Triatoma and Rhodnius kissing bugs
T. cruzi definitive host
humans and mammals
T. cruzi form entering through the skin
T. cruzi trypomastigotes stay in the blood a short time before entering the cells, especially ____ and transforming into
T. cruzi amasitogotes then reproduce by _____ and rupture the cell and transform back to ____
multiple fission, trypomastigotes
T. cruzi pathology primarily caused by
amastigote damage to cardiac and smooth muscle
Method of diagnosing T. cruzi by letting the vector feed, then letting the parasite reproduce in the vector and detecting it within the vector.
T. cruzi endemic areas
South America, Southern US
T. brucei causes what disease
nagana in african cattle
T. brucei definitive hosts
native antelopes and other African ruminants, introduced livestock
T. brucei vectors
Tsetse flies of Genus Glossina, anterior station
T lewis section type
T brucei section type
T brucei infection locations
blood, lymph nodes, spleen, spinal fluid
T brucei cause of pathology
anemia induced by antigens sticking to RBCs leading to immunological destruction.
T brucei gambiense causes what disease
West African Sleeping Sickness
T brucei gambiense vector
different species of Glossina than T. brucei brucei
T brucei gambiense reservoir hosts
native game animals
T brucei gambiense pathology cause
typs metabolize up all the tyrosine
T bruci rhodesiense causes
East African Sleeping Sickness
T bruci rhodesiense vectors
T bruci rhodesiense definitive hosts
humans - no animal reservoirs
T bruci rhodesiense pathology
severe anemia, heart problems, rapidly fatal
Leshmania definitive hosts
mammals, humans, dogs and rodents
Leshmania lifecycle key characteristics
amastigotes live primarily inside phagolysosomes
Sandflies - some species anterior, some posterior
Leshmania LC form in gut of sandflies
Fatal Lesmania species
L. donovani - visceral leishmaniasis amastigotic tissue invasion
L. donovani distribution
India, China, Africa,
Disfiguring Leshmania species
Giardia high risk group
Rural kids in appalachia and SE, homosexual males, indochinese refugees, traveling abroad, hikers in new england/Rockies/pacific northwest
varies from assymptomatic to severe diarrhea, villar atrophy, malabsorption syndrome
T. vaginalis genus
T. vaginalis order
T. vaginalis life cycle
protozoan VD, no cysts
Axostyle, undulating membranes, single nucleus, parabasal body, costa are characteristics of what