Parasitology Exam 2 - Set 2

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E. histolytica infection is more common in ___
men
E. histolytica complications of infection are most common in
women and children
E. histolytica risk groups in USA
rural children in SE, homosexual males, recent immigrants, recent world travelers,
E. histolytica - most common causes of death
Colonic perforation and rupture of hepatic abscesses, brain lesions
E. histolytica diagnostic method that is 70 to 90 percent sensitive
Elisa
What is the second step of the ELISA kit
Wash
What is the third step of the ELISA kit
Add ligand-enzyme
Forth step of ELISA kit?
Wash
5th step of ELISA kit
Add Chromogen substrate
6th step of ELISA kit
Measure absorbance
1st step of ELISA kit
Add serum to ELISA plate
Fecal ELISA is what kind of diagnostic
coproantigen
FECAL ELISA is what ELISA classification?
Antibody-Antigen-Antibody Sandwhich
Which ELISA is specific for E. histolytica, not E. hartmanni, or E. dispar and works with an antibody specific to the binding lectins that cause cytopathology?
FECAL ELISA
Which typical Entamoeba has no cyst stage is found in up to 50 percent of clean mouths and 95 percent of dirty mouths
E. gingivalis
Type of amoebae most commonly responsible for Primary Amebic Meningo-encephalitis?
N. fowleri (gruberi)
Family of N. fowleri
Schizopyrenidae
Schizopyrenidae usually dwell in
soil, sometimes water
Genus of N. fowleri
Nagleria
The amoeba that commonly causes ulcerations of the skin and eyes is in what Family
Hartmannellidae
The amoeba that commonly causes ulcerations of the skin and eyes is in what Genus
Acanthamoeba
Besides N. fowleri what other genus of amoeba may cause PAM
Acanthamoeba
Which Class is composed of animal like flagellates with no chloroplasts
Zoomastigophorea
Zoomastigophorea is part of what Subphylum
Mastigophora
network of circular DNA (called kDNA) inside a large mitochondrion that contains many copies of the mitochondrial genome. The most common structure is a disk, but they have been observed in other arrangements.
kinetoplast
Kinetoplasts are characteristic of what Order
Kinetoplastida
Which family has 7 genera, 5 of which are parasites of insects, and 2 of which infect humans?
Trypanosomatidae
Flagella characteristic of the Trypanosomatidae
only 1 on anterior end
What membrane characteristic of the Trypanosomatidae
undulating membrane
What is the dark staining base of flagellum characteristic of the Trypanosomatidae called?
Kinetosome
What odd cytoskeletal feature is characteristic of the Trypanosomatidae?
peculiar microtubules that extend the length of the cell.
Trypanosomatidae blood form in the definitive host in which the flagellum arises from a posteriorly located kinetoplast and emerges from the side of the body, with an undulating membrane running along the length of the body.
trypomastigote
Trypanosomatidae transitional form in the insect gut, flagellum passes under cell membrane for only small part of the cell, kinetosome is located between nucleus and free flagellum
epimastigote
Predominant Trypanosomatidae form found in the gut of insects. Kinetosome and kinetoplast are located at the anterior end adjacent to where the free flagellum extends out of the cell.
promastigote
are a common morphology during an intracellular lifecycle stage in a mammalian host. All Leishmania have this stage stage of the lifecycle, are particularly small and are among the smallest eukaryotic cells. The flagellum is very short, and does not extend beyond the cell membrane.
amastigote
Trypanosomatidae in a particular form are not sensitive to cyanide due to an unusual
glycerophosphate oxidase system
Trypanosomatidae ARE sensitive to what drug?
suramin
The Trypanosomatidae blood form, ___________, have mitochondria with only a few simple, short tubular cristae
trypomastigote
Trypanosomatidae in mammalian blood use only what form of metabolism
anaerobic - glycolysis for ATP production, oxygen to reoxidize NAD
Trypanosomatidae in the insect gut use what form of metabolism
Aerobic
What Trypanosomatidae form are not sensitive to cyanide?
trypomastigote
Trypanosomatidae direct infection is characteristic of what parasites from this group
insect parasites
Trypanosomatidae infection form common to Typanosomma brucei, T. vivax and T. congloense, etc, where they are directly innoculated into the blood stream of an intermediate host by the mouth parts of an insect.
Indirect Infection by Innoculation
Trypanosomatidae infection form common to T. lewisi (rats), and T. cruzi (humans), where infective trypanosomes are voided in the feces of feeding bugs which then make their way into punctured skin.
Indirect Infection by contamination
Trypanosoma Lewis definitive host
rat
Trypanosoma Lewis intermediate host/vector
northern rat flea
Trypanosoma Lewis cause of pathology
antigens sticking to rbcs
T. Cruzi causes what disease
South American Trypanosomiasis - Chaga's disease
T. cruzi vector
Triatoma and Rhodnius kissing bugs
T. cruzi definitive host
humans and mammals
T. cruzi form entering through the skin
trypomastigotes
T. cruzi trypomastigotes stay in the blood a short time before entering the cells, especially ____ and transforming into
muscle, amastigotes
T. cruzi amasitogotes then reproduce by _____ and rupture the cell and transform back to ____
multiple fission, trypomastigotes
T. cruzi pathology primarily caused by
amastigote damage to cardiac and smooth muscle
Method of diagnosing T. cruzi by letting the vector feed, then letting the parasite reproduce in the vector and detecting it within the vector.
xeonodiagnostic
T. cruzi endemic areas
South America, Southern US
T. brucei causes what disease
nagana in african cattle
T. brucei definitive hosts
native antelopes and other African ruminants, introduced livestock
T. brucei vectors
Tsetse flies of Genus Glossina, anterior station
T lewis section type
Stercoraria (posterior)
T brucei section type
Salivaria (anterior)
T brucei infection locations
blood, lymph nodes, spleen, spinal fluid
T brucei cause of pathology
anemia induced by antigens sticking to RBCs leading to immunological destruction.
T brucei gambiense causes what disease
West African Sleeping Sickness
T brucei gambiense vector
different species of Glossina than T. brucei brucei
T brucei gambiense reservoir hosts
native game animals
T brucei gambiense pathology cause
typs metabolize up all the tyrosine
T bruci rhodesiense causes
East African Sleeping Sickness
T bruci rhodesiense vectors
Glossina
T bruci rhodesiense definitive hosts
humans - no animal reservoirs
T bruci rhodesiense pathology
severe anemia, heart problems, rapidly fatal
Leshmania definitive hosts
mammals, humans, dogs and rodents
Leshmania lifecycle key characteristics
amastigotes live primarily inside phagolysosomes
Leshmania vector
Sandflies - some species anterior, some posterior
Leshmania LC form in gut of sandflies
promastigotes
Fatal Lesmania species
L. donovani - visceral leishmaniasis amastigotic tissue invasion
L. donovani distribution
India, China, Africa,
Disfiguring Leshmania species
L. brazilliensis
Giardia order
Diplomonadida
Giardia high risk group
Rural kids in appalachia and SE, homosexual males, indochinese refugees, traveling abroad, hikers in new england/Rockies/pacific northwest
Giardia Pathology
varies from assymptomatic to severe diarrhea, villar atrophy, malabsorption syndrome
Giardia Diagnosis
FECAL ELISA
T. vaginalis genus
Trichmonas
T. vaginalis order
Trichomonadida
T. vaginalis life cycle
protozoan VD, no cysts
Axostyle, undulating membranes, single nucleus, parabasal body, costa are characteristics of what
T. vaginalis
Apicomplexa Class of importance
Sporozoea
Apicomplexa structures holding proteolytic enzymes
Rhoptries, micronemes,
Apicomplex structure present in some coccidans
conoid
Apicomplexa stucture that is tubules that encircle the anterior end
Polar ring
Rhoptires, micronemes, conoids, and polar rings make up what
Apical complex of infective stage
Coccidia subclass infects
small intracellular mammalian parasites
Spore produced by Coocidia is called
oocyst
Family of thousands of species that are major parasites of domestic animals in the US
Eimeriidae
Eimeriidae LC characteristic
Monxenous
Eimeria LC characteristic/parasitic activity
parasitizes intestinal enterocytes, self limiting
Sporozoan LC Step 1
Initiation of infection by one sporozite
Sporozoan LC Step 2
Trophozoites grow and have multiple divisions producing Schizonts
Sporozoan LC Step 3
Schizonts do multiple divisions producing lots of merozites which are released from cells and then reinvade cells
Sporozoan LC Step 4
Merozoites produce gametes which come together to create a zygote
Sporozoan LC Step 5
Zygote products oocyst which divides into spores
Sporozoan LC Step 6
Spores divide to produce infective sporozoite
Genus Isospora has a similar life cycle to
Eimeria
which Isospora species only infects humans
I. belli
Which Isospora species infects pigs
I suis
Which Genus is associated with outbreaks of food borne illness
Cyclospora
Family for Cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidiidae
Cyptosporidium LC type
direct anal-oral LC
Cryptosporidium transmission form
very small oocysts with fully developed sporozites
Cryptosporidum treatment
Nitazoxanide, Paromomycin
Toxoplasma detection for acute cases
ELISA IgM
Toxoplasma detection for chronic cases
ELISA IgG
Malaria Genus
Plasmodium
Malaria Family
Plasmodiidae
Malaria Suborder
Haemosporina
Malaria Subclass
Piroplasmea
Malaria that is most deadly, responsible for 50% of cases, paroxysms 48 hours, only ring stages or gametocytes found in PB smear
P. falciparum
What 3 families make up the Eimeriina suborder
Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Sarcocystidae
Give taxonomy of malaria starting from Phylum
Apicomplexa, Sporozloea, Piroplasmea, Haemosporina, Plasmodiidae, Plasmodium
Family of Toxo
Sarcocystidae
Suborder of Toxo, Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Cyclospora
Eimeriina
Order of Toxo, Crypto, Eimeria and Cyclospora
Eucoccida
Class of Toxo, Crypto, Eimeria, and Cyclospora
Sporozoea
Entamoeba and Acanthamoeba taxonomy from phylum to order
Sarcomastigophora, Sarcodina, Lobesea, Amoebida
Subphylum and phylum of N. Fowleri
Sarcodina, Schizopyrenida