exam 1 study guide (HDFS 312)

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Terms in this set (74)
- Are "socially shared beliefs about characteristics and behaviors of a particular social groups"
- May be based on:
-observation on average trends
- Ex) on average, health problems increase with age. So, people might form stereotype that all older adults are sick
- Overgeneralization from salient (memorable) examples
- Ex) Jared does not know many older people, but he has a very grouchy older uncle. So, Jared may form a stereotype that all older adults are grouchy
Age based double standards- When older adults are judged more negatively than younger individuals for engaging in the same behaviorsAgeism- "A forms of discrimination against older adults based on their again " - Being considered "too old" for a jobImplicit stereotypes- involve the automatic activation of beliefs and attitudes with our ones awareness (unconscious) - Implicit stereotypes influence behaviors with our one's awareness - People internalize societal attitudes towards older adultsStereotype threat- "an evoked fear of being judged in accordance with a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong" - Stereotypes threats can lead to self-fulfilling prophecies: behaving in a manner consistent with the stereotype - EX) Negative stereotypes of aging (slow) can make older adults perform more poorly on cognitive tasksPositive views on aging- Activating more positive stereotypes of aging (wise, responsible) among older adults is related to: - Less cardiovascular - Stress - Better memory performance - Greater will to live - Longevity3 Development Effects- Chronological age - Historical period (time of measurement) - Generational cohortChronological ageThe length of time that someone has been aliveHistorical period- development caused by unique circumstances such as historical effects - EX: Vietnam war protest and covid 19Generational cohort effect- Caused by unique circumstances of a given generation (associated with the year of birth)Research designs- Cross sectional - Longitudinal - Sequential designsCross sectional design- People of different age groups are tested at a single point in time - Pros: cheaper, easier to collect large samples, and relatively shorter data collection - Cons: cohorts and age differences are confoundedLongitudinal- People of one age group are tested repeatedly over multiple time points - Pros: more costly, people may drop out the study overt time, and may take years or decades -Cons: only one cohort is studied, age changes are more likely to reflect development sequential designSequential designs- combine aspects of both cross sectional and longitudinal designs - Pros: can disentangle age, cohort, and time of measurement effects - Cons: more costly and time consuming than ordinary longitudinal designsInterindividual differences- differences between people (cross sectional)Intraindividual differences- difference (changes) within people (longitudinal)Methods of collecting data- Naturalistic observation - Structured observation - Tasks - Self reportsNaturalistic observation- involves watching people and recording their behavior in real-world situations and contexts - Pros: more ecologically valid (relevant to real-life scenarios) - Cons: researchers must respect peoples' privacy so they have less control what they are able to observeStructured observation- involve observing peoples' behaviors during situations set-up by a researcher (simulated arguments between married couples) - Pros: researcher have more control over the situation - Cons: people may act differently than they would in real-life situations if they know they are being watchedTasks- Involves creating tasks that measure the behavior - pros: it is convenient to administer; more control over the task - Cons: it may not be a valid measureSelf reports- are people's answers to questions about the topic of interestBiological theories of aging- Genetic programming theory - Neuroendocrine theory - Programmed Senescence: telomeresGenetic programming theory- biological limits to our bodies based on geneticsImmunological theory- Immune systems gets less efficient with age - Possibility due to general cellular agingNeuroendocrine theory- "The effectiveness of the body's homeostatic adjustments declines with aging - Leading to the failure of the adaptive mechanism, aging, and deathProgrammed Senescence- Senescence - The process of aging - Programming senescence - The rate and timing of aging if genetically programmedTeleomeres- Are the tips of chromosomes, consisting of repetitive DNA sequence - Each time a cell divides, the telomeres become shorter - When telomeres get too short, the chromosomes become unstable and can no longer replicateError/Variable Rate Theories- Wear and tear - Free radical theory - Automine theoryWear and tear- Aging-> cell damage from internal and external environments - If biological resources were unlimited, we could repair our bodies forever, according to this theoryFree radical theory- Free radicals: are highly reactive and unstable molecules produced, according to this theory external sources - Impair cell function - The older the person, the more free radicals he/she has been exposedAutomine theory- As immune system declines, the body will not currently identify pathogens - The immune systems may erroneously attack healthy tissue - Leads to diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and diabetesSenses- Sight - Smell - Taste - Touch - HearStructural changes to the eye with age- decrease in amount of light passing through eye - changes to lensPresbyopia- difficulty seeing close objects clearly due to loss of elasticity of lensThe Visual acuities- Static visual acuity - Dynamic visual acuityVisual acuities- Ability to see details and discriminate patterns - Peaks in late adolescences/early adulthood - Stable until midlife - More rapid declines after 60 years - Especially noticeable in low light conditionsStatic acuity- Ability to see details and discriminate patterns at a fixed distance - Snellen chart: the letters get smaller as you go down the listDynamic acuity- Ability to accurately identify a moving targetContrast sensitivity- Pelli robinson chart: the letters fade on the chart rather than get smallerAge related eye diseases- Cataracts - Glaucoma - Macular degeneration - Diabetic retinopathyCataracts- Effects the lens - Cloudy spots that develop on the lens, limiting transmissions of light - Clouding may begin around 60 years; by 75 years most people have cataracts - Treatment: surgery, corrective lensesGlaucoma- Effects the lens - Condition in which fluid eye does not drain property; causing high pressure and leading to internal eye damage and vision loss - Treatment: eye dropsMacular degeneration- Effects the retina - macula: focal point of vision in the retina - Macular degeneration: progressive and irreversible destruction of receptors - Leading cause of functional blindness among older adultsDiabetic retinopathy- Effects the retina - Side effect of diabetes involving damage to blood vessels in retina - Treatment: control blood sugar, pressure, and blood cholesterol; surgeryHearing diseases- Presbycusis - TinnitusPresbycusis- Decline in ability to detect and distinguish sounds, and high pitched sounds - By late 70s, ≈50% of older adults have itTinnitus- Perception of constant ringing/buzzing sounds - All are partially linked to sound exposure (loudness, frequency) in early lifeTasteGustationHypogeusia- Reduced ability to tasteSmellOlfactionPresbyosmia- Declines in ability to smell with age - Linked with normal biological aging and decreases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's - Decreased small/taste can lead to - Malnourishment (lack of appetite) - Adding too much salt and sugar to foodTouch and balance- Somesthesis - Thermal Perception - KinesthesisSomesthesis- Sensitivity to touch, vibration, temperature, kinesthesis, and painThermal perception- Sensitivity to hot and coldKinesthesisThe system for sensing the position and movement of individual body partsChronic health conditions- Atherosclerosis - Stroke - Cancer - DiabetesAtherosclerosis- Heart disease - Disease with progressive of blood vessel walls with age - Cause of buildup of: - Fat deposits(plaque) - Calcification (hardening) of arterial walls - Excess plaque buildup may be due to: poor nutrition, smoking, and lack of exerciseStroke- Sudden death of neurons due to lack of oxygen related to blockages in ruptures in the blood vessels - May result from severe atherosclerosis - high blood pressure is a risk factor - One of most common forms of cardiovascular disease in US - F.A.S.T. - F: face drooping - A: arm weakness - S. speech difficulty - T: time to call 911Cancer- Disease characterized by unlimited cell division and replication - Tumors: a group of cells that show unregulated growth - Benign tumors: do not spread to other parts of the body - Malignant tumor: can metasta size (spread to other parts of the body) and multiply uncontrollably - Sometimes, cell mutations occur (due to free radical) in these situations, the cell is programmed to self destruct (apoptosis) so that it does not continue - Cancer spreads when the damaged cells are not put in check (not killed by the immune system or programmed to stop replicating) - Symptoms may include: - Usual lumps or growths - Fatigue - Pain - Fever - Unexplained weight lossDiabetes (type 2)- Diabetes: insulin is a hormone that turns glucose (sugar) into the can use - Type 2: - Body develops insulin resistance insulin does not work as effectivity - Is more common across adulthood - Primarily due to lifestyle and genetic factors - Lifestyle risk factors; obesity, lack of physical activity, poor diet - long term effects: - Diabetic retinopathy - Nerve damage - Cardiovascular disease - Poor circulation -> gangrene -> amputation of limbs - Skin problems - kidney disorders - cognitive dysfunctionLife span- The (maximum) amount of time that a member of a species - The maximum life span of humans 1s≈125 years oldLife expectancy- The average age a person can expect to liveLongevity- A relatively long life (for an individual) - Genes, environment, and life factors influence longevityDisease (deaths) of despair- Drug overdose -> opioid crisis - Alcohol related -> chronic liver disease - SuicideHealth span- The period of time in which one lives (relatively) disease free and functional at optimal levels