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ARC 308 Quiz 1 2015

Architecture and Society Quiz 1 (see "ARC 308 Quiz 1 Buildings" for just buildings) This set covers: Lecture 1 - Architecture and Society Lecture 2 - Architectural Values Lecture 3 - Sensual/ Visual Form Lecture 4 - Architecture as an intellectual/ Artistic experience Lecture 5 - Mathematics/Geometry Lecture 6 - Nature Biology/ Organisms

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Lecture 1 - "Architecture and Society"
In this lecture, Speck asks us to consider the question: What are we saying with our Architecture? Architecture is everywhere: literature, movies, music and politics. Naturally, architecture is a representation of culture at a point in time.
Buildings covered include the Bishop's Palace, Foam House, The Parthenon, St. Peter's,
and San Antonio Library.
Bishop's Palace, Galveston Texas
Nicolas John Clayton
Bishops Palace, Galveston Texas
Nicolas John Clayton, 1886-1891
Foam House, Austin Texas
Charles Harker
Architecture and Society. hippie era; made of chicken wire then sprayed with foam; organic; earth tone; not heavy or solid
The Parthenon, Athens
447- 430 BCE
Built at the height of Enlightenment, this building is compose of extremely precise ratios. The building is all about democracy. Built to honor Athena, it holds a strong emotional power. Art tells stories, and the Parthenon tells the story of some crazy ass gods.
St. Peter's, Rome
Bramante, Sangallo, Michelangelo, Della Porta, Maderno, Bernini et al.
Largest Christian church in the world. Located in the Vatican City in Italy. The dome was created by Michelangelo. The f***ing massive structure is a snapshot in time of when the church was the biggest power.
Library, San Antonio Texas
Ricardo Legorreta
Built to represented Mexican American culture. The building is vibrant and elicits celebration in it's interactive architecture.
Lecture 2 - "Architectual Values/ Philosophy/ Principles / Predjudices/ Theory"
Problems are indeterminate, and have many design solutions. Values, principles, and theories guide GOOD design (not the "let's try this approach"). There are 4 sources for vales:
1. Traits, Personality
2. Experiences, places
3. Time in History, what's important to our time
4. Judgement, what do I care about.
In this lecture, Speck asks us to consider the question: How do values influence how architects design?
Architects covered include: Hugo Haering, Mies van der Rohe, and Albert Speer
Hugo Haering
Traits: Lively, Invovled
Values: optimize individuals, democracy, nature = man's teacher
1. Society depended on individuals, each solution is unique
2. Design = an emotional/ spiritual process.
3. Beauty is relative.
4. Function >> "god"
5. Expression important, read function by expression
He used specific forms to meet function needs.

Known for: Farm, Germany
Meis van der Rohe
Traits: Man of few words, tall, construction family
Values: Society/ Institutions, ->push culture, collective knowledge
1. Architecture should represent age: industrial tech.
2. Design is rational: analyze, research, think
3. Beauty is standard
4. Principles apply - CONSISTENCY "can't make new arch every Monday"
5. Structure = Primary expression, materials
Albert Speer
Traits: Hitler's architect, good architect, younger
Values: Society/ Leaders should be followed, fate
1. Buildings ought to represent "type"
2. Architecture is a way of communicating
3. Wonder, Awe, Drama = main facets of arch.
4. Architecture is for posterity, snapshots in time.
5. Classical Periods=great teachers, Greece, Rome
Farm, Germany
Hugo Haering,
Values: Extremely functional cow farm.
Barcelona Pavilion,
Mies van der Rohe
Values: "less is more." Simple, elegant, beautiful
Farnsworth House, Plano Illinois
Mies van der Rohe
Values:Driven by beauty and art, flexible function inside.
New State Chancellery, Berlin
Albert Speer
Values: Enormous grandeur, made with granite, solid. Huge, powerful.
Lecture 3 - "Sensual Visual Form"
The original facets of architecture were:
1a. Firmness - is strong
2a. Commodity - is useful
3a. Delight - makes us happy

Today those expectations are more complex:
1b. Physical considerations - properties/interact.
2b. Human factors - meaning, affect humans,
3b. Form - how does it look

The main focus of this lecture are the 12 Elements of Form.
beauty, designated prestige. note: in the visual sense, there are things more desirable to see.
12 Elements of Form
1. Balance
2. Proportion
3. Symmetry
4. Light
5. Space
6. Shape
7. Line
8. Color
9. Material
10. Scale
11. Rhythm
12. Texture - pretty much applies to any building
le grande odalisque
Cathedral Chartres, France
Balance - towers one heavy(short), one light(tall)
Texture - stone, sculptures
Rhythm - flying buttresses
Scale - huge, god sized doors, human sized doors
Light - pools of light and darkness
Color - stained glass
Chateau Vax-le-Vicomte, France
Le Vau/ Le Notre/ Le Brun
1656-61, Was "too" beautiful, taken from minister of finance
Shape - dome
Colors - rich vibrant
Space - huge lawn
Taj Mahal. Agra India
Shah Jahan, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri
Shape - pointed arches, convex and concave
Texture - marble
Scale - huge domes
Temple of Heaven
Chapel Ronchamps, France
Le Corbusier
Sydney Opera House, Australia
Jorn Utzon
Lecture 4 - "Architecture as an intellectual/ Artistic experience"
Form conveys messages visually and meaningfully.
In this lecture Speck poses the question: How are messages embodied in architecture?
Intellectual messages of architecture
1. Order - world is about order
2. Complexity - world is about complexity
3. Technique - how a building is made
Villa Rotunda, Italy
Order: symmetrical, numerically proportional, grand
Dormitory, Bryn Mawr
Louis I. Kahn
Order: less emotional, more intellectual, very precise lines, makes people think in an orderly way
S. Carlo alla Quattro Fontane, Rome
Complexity: instead of a facade or an object building, did both. Rounded inside, but alter at front.
Denver Museum of Art, Denver
Daniel Libeskind
Complexity: movement, dynamism, irresolution
S. Andrea, Italy
Technique: pilaster, part wall part column; beams, arches, walls, merged
Schroeder House, Holland
Gerritt Reitveld
Technique: Innovative, technology concrete, light/thin
Centre Pompideau, Paris
Piano and Rogers
Technique: technology visible, industrial, pipes visible
Lecture 5 - "Mathematics/Geometry"
Numbers/ Mathematics/ Geometry as Inspiration of Form. In this lecture Speck poses the question: Why should we look to numbers and geometry for form?
Reasons to Use numbers/ math/ geometry
1. Mysticism
2. Prestige
3. Makes Structural Sense
4. Iconic
5. Intellectual Puzzles
Golden Ratio
Most well-known and studied ideal proportioning system. Used in Parthenon. A single line is divided into two unequal segments such that the ratio of the smaller part is to the larger part as the larger part is to the whole. The Golden Ratio is developed by using a square to geometrically form the Golden Section.
Pyramids, Egypt
2650-2500 BCE
Mysticism, Prestige, Structural, Iconic
Designs for Chaux,
Claude Ledoux
Mysticism: Perfect geometry
Architect built plans for a "perfect city," filled with concentric circles and a penis.
Library, Stockholm Sweden
Gunnar Asplund
Prestige: uses pure geometry, rise to center, geometry elevates prestige.
Guggenheim Museum, NY
Frank Lloyd Wright
Circular geometry, elevation and prestige
U.S. Pavilion at Expo, Montreal
Buckminster Fuller
Geometrical, spherical, prestige. makes sense: smallest amount of material for largest volume
Peter Eisenman
didn't worry about function, just form.
Capitol Building, Dacca Bangladesh
Louis Kahn
Very geometric. Mysticism, circles, giant windows
Zollverein School of Design, Germany
Kazuyo Sejima
Each window is a square
Lecture 6 - "Nature Biology/ Organisms"
Organic forms vs Geometric forms.
Wat Arun and Royal Palace, Bangkok Thailand.
finger nails
Casa Mila, Barcelona
Antonio Guadi
curvy room and facade, functional and organic
TWA International Terminal, New York
Eero Saarinen
Dipoli Student Union, Finland
Reima and Raili Pietila
nature incorporated heavily
Guggenheim, Bilbao Spain
Frank Gehry
looks like a ship
Disney Concert Hall, LA
Frank Gehry
Phaeno Science Center,Germany
Zaha Hadid
all about movement, organic shape made from function.