78 terms

Advanced Chemistry - Acid/Base Unit Review

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acid
A compound that gives off hydrogen ions in water.
base
A compound that gives off hydroxide ions in water.
dilute acid
A solution that has a small amount of acid dissolved in a large amount of water.
concentrated acid
A solution that has a large amount of acid dissolved in a small amount of water.
indicator
A compound which changes color to show the presence of an acid or base.
corrosive
The property of eating or wearing away metals.
ions
Atoms that have a positive or negative charge.
neutral solution
A solution that is neither acidic nor basic.
neutralization
A reaction between an acid and a base to form salt and water.
salt
A compound containing the metallic ion from a base and the non-metallic ion from the acid.
pH
This tells how acidic or basic something is.
strong acid
An acid which easily gives off many hydrogen ions in water.
weak acid
An acid that does not easily give off many hydrogen ions in water.
strong base
A base which easily gives off many hydroxide ions in water.
weak base
A base that does not easily give off many hydroxide ions in water.
buffer solution
This solution can absorb acids or bases without changing its own pH significantly.
titration
The quantitative process in which a standard solution is used to determine the concentration of another solution.
standard solution
A solution in which the concentration is known.
endpoint
____________ occurs when the acid is neutralized by the base, or vice-verse, and is noted by a change in color.
phenolphthalein
An acid-base indicator used to determine the endpoint of the titration process. It is colorless in an acid solution, but pink in a base solution.
sour
Acids taste ____________.
...
Bases taste ______________.
base
If you put red litmus paper in a solution and it turns blue, what do you have?
acid or a neutral
If you have red litmus paper in a solution and it doesn't change color, what do you have?
acid
When you put blue litmus paper in a solution and it turns red, what do you have?
base or a neutral
When you put blue litmus paper in a solution and it doesn't change color, what do you have?
neutral
If you put red litmus paper in the solution and blue litmus paper in the same solution and neither paper changes color, what do you have?
Answers could include one of the following: red-cabbage, methyl red, bromothymol blue, or methyl violet.
Name one other indicator, other than phenolphthalein, that was talked about in class.
salt + water
What 2 products can you get when you mix an acid and a base?
7
What is the pH of a neutral solution?
0-6.9
What is the pH range from strong to weak acid?
7.1-14
What is the pH range from weak to strong base?
b. acidic
Normal rainfall today is:
a. neutral b. acidic c. basic
H2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 ----> MgSO4 + 2H2O
Balance the equation: H2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 ----> ?
CH3COOH + LiOH -----> LiCH3COO + H2O
Balance the equation: CH3COOH + LiOH -----> ?
Ba(OH)2 (dissolved in water) ---> Ba(exponent2+) + 2OH(exponent -1)
Balance the equation: Ba(OH)2 (dissolved in water) ---> ?
H3PO4 (dissolved in water) ---> 3H(exponent +1) + PO4(exponent -3)
Balance the equation: H3PO4 (dissolved in water) ---> ?
3HNO3 + Al(OH)3 ----> Al(NO3)3 + 3H2O
Balance the equation below:
3HNO3 + Al(OH)3 ----> ?
buret
What is the tool/equipment name for the volume measuring device used in the titration experiments to find the volume of the liquid to the nearest 0.001 cm-cubed?
CH3COOH
What is the formula for acetic acid?
HCl
What is the formula for hydrochloric acid?
H3PO4
What is the formula for phosphoric acid?
H2CO3
What is the formula for carbonic acid?
HNO3
What is the formula for nitric acid?
H2SO4
What is the formula for sulfuric acid?
HF
What is the formula for hydrofluoric acid?
NaOH
What is the formula for sodium hydroxide?
Ca(OH)2
What is the formula for calcium hydroxide?
KOH
What is the formula for potassium hydroxide?
Al(OH)3
What is the formula for aluminum hydroxide?
LiOH
What is the formula for lithium hydroxide?
H2 (hydrogen gas)
What gas is given off in the reaction with an acid with a metal?
3H2SO4 + 2Fe ---> Fe2(SO4)3 + 3H2
Balance the equation:
H2SO4 + Fe(iron III) ---> ?
2HCl + 2Li -----> 2LiCl + H2
Balance the equation:
HCl + Li -----> ?
H2SO4 + 2K -----> K2SO4 + H2
Balance the equation:
H2SO4 + K ------> ?
2CH3COOH + 2Na -----> 2NaCH3COO + H2
Balance the equation:
CH3COOH + Na ------> ?
2H3PO4 + 3Zn ------> Zn3(PO4)2 + 3H2
Balance the equation:
H3PO4 + Zn ------> ?
slippery
Bases feel ________________.
bases
Acids or Bases? Which of these always has a metal in the formula?
taste test
What is the most dangerous acid/base test?
salts
What group of compounds from the acid/base unit have a metal ion and a non-metal halogen?
clear
When you add phenolphthalein to an acid, the color will be ____________?
pink/purple
When you add phenolphthalein to a base, the color will be ____________?
back-titration
What is the process called where you add acid to the base until the solution turns from pink to clear called?
water
__________ is formed in the neutralization process when hydrogen ion from the acid and the hydroxide ion from the base form a compound.
KOH + HNO3 ------> H2O + KNO3
What acid and base would you mix together to make the salt KNO3?
Al(OH)3 + 3HCl -----> AlCl3 + 3H2O
What acid and base would you mix together to make the salt AlCl3?
10
A pH of 4 is ____ times more acidic than a pH of 5?
100 times
A pH of 3 is ____ times more acidic than a pH of 5?
1000 times
A pH of 2 is ____ times more acidic than a pH of 5?
acid
The burning of Illinois coal, which is high in sulfur content leads to sulfur emissions in our atmosphere. When the sulfur reacts with moisture in the atmosphere, you get ________ rain in the form of H2SO3 and H2SO4.
H2CO3 and HNO3
The burning of automobiles leads to high CO2 and high NO2 emissions. When these combine with moisture in the atmosphere, you get acid rain in the form of ________ and __________.
7-7.8
What is the pH range of healthy blood? If it gets out of this range you could die and so your body has buffers in the blood to regulate pH level.
pH meter
What is an electrical device used to test for pH?
0.200M CH3COOH
If you have 10.0 mL of a 0.5M NaOH solution and mix it with 25.0 mL of CH3COOH, and it reaches endpoint, what is the unknown molarity of the acid?
60.0 mL KOH
If you add 15.o mL of 0.400M H2SO4 solution to a 0.200M KOH solution, how many mL of KOH are required to reach endpoint?
23.95 mL of NaOH
If you add 21.4 mL of a 0.106M HCl solution to a 0.0947M solution of NaOH, how much base, in mL, is required to reach endpoint?
0.258M HCl
If you add 23.4 mL of a 0.551M solution NaOH to 50.0 mL of an HCl solution, what is the molarity of the acid?
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