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97 terms

Bones and Cartilages of the Human Body

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Axial skeleton
bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
Appendicular skeleton
the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs
Functions of the bones
framework, levers for muscles, storage, and blood cell formation
Compact bone
The dense, hard layer of bone tissue
Spongy bone
honeycomb of trabeculae (little beams) filled with red bone marrow
Diaphysis
tubular shaft that forms the axis of long bones, composed of compact bone that surrounds the medullary cavity, yellow bone marrow (fat) is contained in the medullary cavity
Epiphysis
expanded ends of long bones, exterior is compact bone and the interior is spongy bone
Articular cartilage
aka Hyaline cartilage
the joint surface of the epiphysis is covered with this
Epiphyseal line
separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis (growth)
Periosteum
double-layered protective membrane
dense regular CT
outer fibrous layer of Periosteum
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
inner osteogenic layer of the periosteum is composed of these two things
Perforating fibers
secures the underlying bone to the periosteum
collagen fibers
perforating fibers are tufts of this type of fiber
location of the hematopoietic tissue in infants
medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone
Hematopoietic tissue
red marrow
location of the hematopoietic tissue in adults
middle of long bones and the head of the proximal and distal epiphysis
Osteon system
Haversian system; the structural unit of compact bone
llamela
weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen
Haversian canal
central channel that contains blood vessels and nerve fibers
Perforating canals
channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal
Osteocytes
mature bone cells
Osteoblasts
bone-forming cells
Osteoclasts
large cells that reabsorb or break down bone matrix
lacunae
small cavities in the bone that contain osteocytes
canalliculi
hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
Inorganic chemical composition
Mineral salts make up 65% of bone by mass, mainly calcium phospates, responsible for bone hardness and its resistance to compression
bulges, depressions,and holes serve as
sites of attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
joint surfaces, conduits for blood vessels and nerves
tuberosity
rounded projection
crest
narrow, prominent ridge of bone
trancanter
large, blunt, irregular surface
line
narrow ridge of the bone
turbal
small, rounded projection
epicondyle
raised area above a condyle
spine
sharp slender projection
process
any bone prominence (sticks out)
head
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
facet
smooth, nearly flat articular surface
condyle
rounded articular projection
ramus
armlike bar of bone
meatus
canal-like passageway
sinus
cavity within the skull
fosa
shallow, basinlike depression
groove
furrow
fissure
narrow, slit-like opening
foraman
round or oval opening through the bone
ossification and osteogenesis
the process of bone tissue formation, which leads to: the formation of the bony skeleton in embryos, bone growth until early adulthood, bone thickness, remodeling, and repair
formation of the bony skeleton begins at
week 8 of embryo development
instramembranous ossification
bone develops from a fibrous membrane
endochondral ossification
bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage
prolification zone
cartilage cells undergo mitosis, pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
calcification zone
older cells enlarge, the matrix becomes calcified, cartilage cells die, and the matrix begins to deteriorate
ossification zone
new bone formation occurs
interstitual growth
growth in length that continually grows and is replaced by bone
remodeling
bone is thicker and stronger by appositional growth
scapula
shoulder blade, irregular
humerus
upperarm, long
ulna
pinky side, long
carpal
wrist, short
metacarpal
palm of hand, short
phalanges
toes/fingers
femur
thigh, largest bone in the body, long
fibula
lateral lower leg, long
clavicle
collar bone AXIAL
Ilium
pelvis
pubis
pubic symphasis , irregular
ishium
sitting bone, pelvis
patella
knee, newborns do not have this
tibia
under femur, long
tarsal
ankle, short
metatarsal
middle foot
frontal
babies have two (forehead)
zygomatic
cheeks
mandible
jaw
maxilla
upper jaw
vomer
nose
temporal
lateral side of head
parietal
above ear
cervical vertebrae
C1-C7
thoracic vertebrae
T1-T12
lumbar vertebrae
L1-L5 lower back
Sacrum and Coccyx
last two bones in the vertebral column
intervertebral disk
between vertebrae
sternum
breastbone
floating ribs
11 and 12 no anterior attachment
false ribs
8-12 more cartilage than bone
true ribs
1-7 more bone than cartilage
Hematoma
impact was strong enough to break bone therefore tissue and muscle; it is not a normal bruise. Symptoms: swollen, lumpy, sore
fibro cartilage callus
place that is hardening cartilage first
bony callus
osteocytes, bone building cells
jagged/rough
steps of bone remodeling
hemotoma, fibro cartilage, bony callus, bone polishing
bone pollishing
smooth it out by laying osteocytes
Female pelvis
shallow and wider
Male Pelvis
narrower and deeper
Fibrous Synthroses
immovable sutures in cranium; fibrous connective tissue
Cartilaginous Amphiathorses
semi-movable cartilage cushioning in the vertebral column, pubic symphasis
Synovial Diarthroses
freely movable articular capsule, cartilage, snyovial fluid in the shoulder girdle and pelvis