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largest portion of the brain: divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones they underlie
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
portion posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter; responsible for higher mental functions
thalamus or diencephalon
each of two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain; responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum; responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; the three levels are the misencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
Peripheral nervous system
nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain, also called afferent nerves
nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to the muscles and glands, also called efferent nerves
autonomic nervous system
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
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