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27 terms

Anatomic Terms Chapter 8

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Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord
brain
portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
cerebrum
largest portion of the brain: divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones they underlie
frontal lobe
anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
parietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
temporal lobe
portion that lies below the frontal lobe; responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occipital lobe
portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes; responsible for vision
cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter; responsible for higher mental functions
thalamus or diencephalon
each of two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain; responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
gyri
convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
sulci
shallow grooves that separate gyri
fissures
deep grooves in the brain
cerebellum
portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum; responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
brainstem
region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; the three levels are the misencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
ventricles
series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid
plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
meninges
three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
Peripheral nervous system
nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
sensory nerves
nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain, also called afferent nerves
motor nerves
nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to the muscles and glands, also called efferent nerves
autonomic nervous system
nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
hypothalamus
control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience